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Introduction: "La Plebe," by Luis Valdez xiii I. WHERE ARE THE ROOTS OF MEN? THE ORIGINS OF MEXICO The Heart of Earth, from Popol Vuh: The Sacred Book of the Ancient Qtiche Maya 3 In a Time Nobody Exactly Remembers: The Olmecs, by Miguel Leon-Portilla 6 The City of Tenochtitlan 8 What Greater Grardeur, from the Dispatches of Hernando Cortez 9 Greater than Constantinople and Rome, by Father Bernal Diaz deel Castillo ii Life of the Aztecs 12 Aztec Democracy: In Favor of the Common Man, by Icazbalceta 13 Aztec Imperialism: Tlacaelel and Human Sacrifice, by Miguel Leon-Portila 14 The Cosmos and Man: Aztec Humanism 17 Where Are the Roots of Men? 17 Does Man Possess Any Truth? 18 One Day We Must Go 18 Who Am I? ia The Blood Was Fulfilled, from the Chilam Balam ofChumvyel 19 Death Emerges from Lifet, Ife Emerges fron Death, by Domingo Marti nez Paredes 21 1. THE CONQUEST. FLOWERS AND SONGS OF SORROW No, It Is Not a Dream, from the Aztec Codices 27 We Come As Friends: The Meeting of Motecuhzoma and Cortez 2- The Fall of Tenochtitl.an 29 The Dirges 31 Broken Spears 31 Flowers and Songs of Sorrow 32 All Wars of Conquest Are Unjust, by Father Bartolome de ias Casas 33 The Last Judgment 33 The King Must Pay 34 It is Not Proper That This Book Be Published: A Royal Ceduila of Philip II 3 III. THE GENESiS OF THE CHICANOS The Journals of Nunez Cabeza de Vaca O39 The Thoughts That Clothe the Soul of a European 39 Our Countrymen, These Slave Catchers 40 From the Edge of the Mountains to the Stones and Sand in the Rivers, The Proclamation of Don Juan de Onate 42 The Vow of Povert, by Father Jeronimo de Zarate Salmeron 44 Sonora Is Our Motherland, by Arnold R. Rojas 45 The Simple Pastoral Iife (Texas), l)y Americo Paredes 47 The Vaquero, by Arnold R. Rojas 50 The Gold Miners, by Francisco Salazar 54 The Sheephirderers, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca 59 The (amnipesinos, by Raymond Barrio 63 "The Braceros, by Ernesto Gaiarza 77 With the Coming of the Barbwire, Came Hunger: Folk-Lore of the Texas-Mexican Vaquero, by Jovita Gonzales 81 Los Caballeros de Labor y Los Gorras Blancas, by Fabiola Cabeza de Baca 84 IV. THE GODS OF WAR:- DEATH TO THE GRINGOSI The Invasions of This Modern Rome, by lose Maria Tornel y AMendivil gi To the Texas C'olonists "Mexican" Is an Execrable Word 92 After We Took Them to Our Bosom, They Destroyed Us 93 The Fal of the Alamno, by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana 97 What Child Will Not Shed Abundant Tears at the To1mb of His Parents, by Got-ernor Juan Bautista Vigil 100 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Article VIII: Rights of Mexicans Established in Territories Ceded to United States 101i The Betraval 103 California Is Lost!, from El Clamor Publico 103 They Have No Voice, by Dor Pablo de la Guerra 104 The Guerrilla Wars io5 I Will Not Submit, b Joanquin Murieta 1o6 Joaquin Murrieta, by Arnold R. Rojas -107 Love Secrets of Joaquin Muricta, fromn an old newspaper log09 Suffer the Death of Martyrs, Proclamation of Juan Nepominceno Cortina 111 Revolutionaries Are Also Sons of God, by General Francisco Villa 117 Viva la Revolucion: We Are Heading Toward Life, biy Ricardo Flores Magon 122 V. THE MIGRATIONS The Roots of Migration, by Ernesto Galarza 127 Corridos: The Songs of Exodus 132 An Emigrant's Farewell 133 El Covotito 134 Deported '135 La Cucaracha 136 As Loyal Citizens of the United States 138 El Arrinsado: The Guest in the Land of Buf y Now, Pay Later, by Antonio Gortmez 139 VIL IN THE BARRIOS Life in the Barrios 145 On the Road to Texas: Pete Fonesea, by Toimas Rivera 146 Tucson, Arizona: El Hoyo, by Mario Suarez 154 Tucson, Arizona: Las Comnadres, by Mario Suarez 157 East Los Angeles: Passing Time, by J. L. Navarro 163 Los Angeles: The Sacred Spot, by Javier Alva 1y70 The Vatos 173 The Story of a Vato 174 Yon Are Lower Than Animals 175 Justice in the Southwest. Report of the United States Conmmission on Civil Rights 177 The Caste System of Employvment, Report of the Equal Emnploy ment Opportunity Commission 185 Manana Is Too Late-L-abor Standards, m Alaclotvio I Barraza 188 VIL LA CAUSA: IN THE BEGINNING The Plan of Delano 197 iHuelga!: The History of the National Farm Workers Association 201 Why Delano? by Cesar Chavez 202 Nothing Has Changed: An Interview with Cesar Chavez 204 El Malcriado: The Voice of the Farm Worker 208 The Dignity of the Farmi Worker 209 What Is a Movement? 2o1 Walkout in Alhbuuerque: The Chicano Movement Becomes Nationwide 211 Venceremos!: Mexican-American Statement on Travel to Cuba, by Luis Valdez and Roberto Rubalcaca 214 We Demand: Statement of Chicanos of the Southwest in the Poor People's Campaign, by1 Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales 218 La Raza Unida, by Jorge Lara-Braud 221 VIII, LA CAUSA: LA TIERRA (THE EARTH) Mother of All Life--The Earth, by Cleofas Vigil 227 The Land Grants, by Clark S. Knowlton 229 lMv Cow, She Was Almost Arrested, Inb Tobias Leyba 231 The Alianza: A EHope and a Dream, bij Fathcr Robert G. Garcia 235 Our Tfie Has Come 241 La Cooperativa. by Valentina Valdez Tijerina 242 Our Allegiance Is to the L,and, by Alex Mercure 252 X. LA CAUSA: LA MUJER (THE WOMAN) The Act of Love. from the Aztec Codices 257 Do Not Throw Yourself upon Women 258 Must We Live Weeping?: A Father's Advice to His Daughter 259 The Pioneer Womren, by Fabiola Cabeza de Baca 260 Songs of Sorrows 263 El Abandonado 263 La Firolera 264 El Sombrero Ancho 265 Madre z265 La Jefita, by Jose Montoya 266 Cruz, by Augustin Lira 268 The New Chicana 271 The Women of La Raza, by Enriqueta Longauez y Vasqie z 272 La Madre de Aztlan, by Mary Lou Espinosa 279 X LA CAUSA: THE CHI CANOS The Emniergence of the New Chicano, bu Guillermo Fuenfrios 283 El Grito, by Guadalupe de Saavedra z88 Education and De-education 291 The Writing on the Blackboard, Students of Los Angeles 292 The Word Was Made Flesh: Spanish in the Classrooi, by Sabinte R. Uibarri 295 The Mexican American Child: How Have We Failed Him?, from a Re port of the U.S. Office of Education 297 The Blow Outs!, from the Chicano Student News 301 The Chicano Movement: A New Breed 303 The Brown Berets 303 La Junta 305 Los Comancheros del Norte: For Machos Only 307 The Chicano Movement: A Controversy 310o Reverse Racism, by Congressman Henry Gonzales 3ii TIhe Youth Will Be Heard, from Carta Editorial 318 Voices of the Chicanos 323 Aztec Angel, by Luis Omar Salinas 324 Mrusica de Mi'achete, by Benfanin Luana 326 22 Miles, by Jose Angel Guitierre 3z28 Jail Flashes, by Roberto Vargas 330 Segundo Canto, by Roberto Vargas 331 Poem in Lieu of Preface, by Alberto Alurista 332 El Loule, by Jose Montoya 333 To a Dead Lowrider, by J. L. Navarro 337 A Trip Through the Mind Jail, by Raul Salinas 339 Xl LA CAUSA: THE ARTIST The Toltec (The Artist): He Makes Things Live, from the Aztec Codices 347 The Good Painter 347 He Who Gives Life to Clay 348 He Is Whole 348 The Art of the Chicano Movement, and the Movement of Chicaino Art, by Manuel J. Martinez 349 Chicano Theater, by Luis Valdez 353 Notes on Chicano Theater 354 El Teatro Campesino . 359 Bernabe, a play by Luis Valdez 36i1 Notes of the Playwright 362 Bernabe: A Drama of Modern Chicano Mythology (scene 3) 364 XlI LA CAUSA: GOD AND CHURCH "Thec Destruction of the Aztec Temples: I Overturned the Idols, by Hernando Cortez 379 God and Man 381 Savings of Patrocino Barela 382 I Believe in God, But Not in Priests, by Cleofas Vigil 383 God Is Beside You on the Picket Line, from the writings of Cesar Chavez 384 Peregrinacion, Penitencia, Revolucion 385 To Be a Man Is to Suffer for Others: God Help Us to Be Men! 386 The Church and the Chicanos 387 The Church and La Raza 388 Campo Cultural de ia Raza, by Alberto Alurista 389 Catolicos por La Raza 391 Jesus Christ as a Revolutionist, by Dolores del Grito 393 The New Christ, poems by Abelardo Delgado 394 The Organizer 395 A New Cross 396 XII1. AZTLAN The Children of the Aztec: The Vision of Motecuhzorna 401 El Plan Espiritual die Aztlan: Chicano Liberation Youth Conference 402