Table of contents for Elliott and Wood's cases and materials on criminal law.


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1. INTRODUCTION                                                     1
1. The Concept of Crime                                         2
2. The Function of the Criminal Law                             5
3. Classifying Conduct as Criminal                              8
4. The Human Rights Act 1998                                   16
The Convention Rights                                       16
2. ACTUS REUS                                                      25
1. Elements of Crime                                           25
2. Voluntariness                                               27
3. Omissions                                                   31
i. Breach of Duty to Act                                  33
ii. Commission by Omission                                34
4. Causation                                                   49
i. Sine Qua Non                                           50
ii. Imputability                                          52
iii. An Alternative Approach                               70
5. Coincidence of Actus Reus and Mens Rea                      71
3. MENS REA                                                        79
1. The requirement of Mens Rea                                 79
2. The Meaning of Mens Rea                                     86
i. Intention                                              88
ii. Motive and Intention                                 109
iii. Knowledge                                            114
iv. Recklessness                                          118
v. Wilfulness                                            135
vi. Proposals for Reform                                  142
3. Mistake                                                    145
i. Relevant Mistakes                                     145
ii. Irrelevant Mistakes                                  163
4. Strict Liability                                           177
i. The Evolution of Strict Liability                     177
ii. Identifying Offences of Strict Liability             178
iii. Critique                                             201
iv. Proposals for Reform                                  204
4. MENTAL INCAPACITY                                                208
1. Insanity                                                     208
i. Disease of the Mind                                     215
ii. Defect of Reason                                       221
iii. Uncontrollable Impulse                                 224
2. Automatism                                                   225
3. Proposals for Reform                                         236
4. Intoxication                                                 241
i. Specific and Basic Intent                               242
ii. Involuntary Intoxication                               251
iii. Becoming Intoxicated with Intent-the "Dutch
Courage" Problem                                        256
iv. Intoxication and Defences                               258
v. Proposals for Reform                                    263
5. DEFENCES                                                         271
1. Defences in General                                          271
2. Duress                                                       272
i. An Imminent Threat of Death or Serious Injury           273
ii. The Test for Duress                                    276
iii. Characteristics Attributable to the Person of
Reasonable Firmness                                     278
iv. Voluntary Association with Criminal Organisation        283
v. Duress and Murder                                       290
vi. Proposals for Reform                                    303
3. Necessity                                                    311
i. A Defence of Necessity                                  311
ii. Duress of Circumstances                                316
iii. Necessity, Duress of Circumstances and Homicide        318
iv. Necessity by Circumstance                               325
v. Proposals for Reform                                    336
4. Self-Defence and Kindred Defences                            336
i. Scope of the Defences                                   337
ii. The Issues of Imminence and the Pre-emptive
Strike                                                  345
iii. Is there a Duty to Retreat?                            348
iv. Unknown Circumstances of Justification                  350
v. To Which Offences do the Defences Apply?                350
vi. Reasonable Force                                        351
vii. Fatal Force and the European Convention on
Human Rights                                            359
viii. Proposals for Reform                                   361
6. DEGREES OF RESPONSIBILITY                                        364
1. Accomplices                                                  364
i. Principals and Secondary Parties                        364
ii. Aiding, Abetting, Counselling or Procuring             366
iii. Proving the Principal Offence                          370
iv. Mens Rea of a Secondary Party                           376
v. Secondary Party Not Convictable as a Principal          401
vi. Proposals for Reform                                    406
2. Vicarious Liability                                        408
3. Corporations                                               416
7. INCHOATE OFFENCES                                              438
1. Attempts                                                   438
i. Mental Element                                        440
ii. Actus Reus                                           450
2. Conspiracy                                                 463
i. Statutory Conspiracies                                463
ii. Common Law Conspiracies                              474
iii. Jurisdiction                                         479
3. Incitement                                                 482
4. Impossibility in Relation to Inchoate Offences             488
i. Attempt                                               488
ii. Conspiracy                                           498
iii. Incitement                                           499
8. HOMICIDE                                                       503
1. The Actus Reus of Homicide                                 503
2. Murder                                                     505
i. The Penalty for Murder                                505
ii. The Mental Element in Murder                         505
iii. Proposals for Reform                                 513
3. Special Defences                                           524
i. Provocation                                           524
ii. Diminished Responsibility                            555
4. Involuntary Manslaughter                                   574
i. Unlawful Act Manslaughter                             580
ii. Gross Negligence Manslaughter                        589
iii. Reform of the Law of Involuntary Manslaughter        597
5. Other Unlawful Homicides                                   604
i. Infanticide                                           604
ii. Child Destruction                                    604
iii. Abortion                                             605
iv. Suicide                                               610
v. Causing Death by Driving                              612
9. NON-FATAL OFFENCES AGAINST THE PERSON                          614
1. Assault and Battery                                        614
i. Actus Reus                                            615
ii. Mens Rea                                             619
iii. Justifications                                       619
2. Assault Occasioning Actual Bodily Harm                     652
3. Malicious Wounding and Wounding with Intent                654
i. Malicious Wounding                                    654
ii. Wounding with Intent                                 662
iii. Proposals for Reform                                 664
4. Sexual Offences                                            669
i. Rape                                                  669
ii. Assault by Penetration                               679
iii. Sexual Assault                                       680
iv. Causing a Person to Engage in Sexal Activity
Without Consent                                        683
v. Sexual Offences Against Children Under 13           684
vi. Sexual Offences Against Children Aged 13-16        685
vii. Other Offences                                     685
10, THEFT AND ROBBERY                                          687
1. Theft                                                   687
i. Appropriation                                      688
ii. "Property"                                         713
iii. "Belonging to Another"                            724
iv. "With the Intention of Depriving Permanently"      743
v. "Temporary Deprivation"                             750
vi. "Dishonestly"                                      755
2. Robbery                                                 764
11, FRAUD                                                      769
1. Obtaining Property by Deception                         770
i. Obtaining Property Belonging to Another with
Intention Permanently to Deprive                    770
ii. Deception                                          777
iii. The Obtaining must be by the Deception            784
iv. Dishonesty                                         794
2. Obtaining Pecuniary Advantage by Deception              795
3. Obtaining Services by Deception                         796
4. Evasion of Liability by Deception                       798
5. Making Off Without Payment                              802
6. Fraud Bill 2005                                         806
12. BLACKMAIL                                                  810
i. Demand with Menaces                                810
ii. Unwarranted                                        814
iii. With a View to Gain, etc.                         819
13. HANDLING                                                   826
i. Stolen Goods                                       826
ii. Otherwise than in the Course of Stealing           832
iii. Forms of Handling                                 834
iv. Knowing or Believing them to be Stolen Goods       840
v. Dishonesty                                          844
vi. Dishonestly Retaining a Wrongful Credit            845
14. BURGLARY AND KINDRED OFFENCES                              849
1. Burglary                                                849
i. Entry                                              850
ii. As a Trespasser                                    851
iii. Buildings or Parts of Buildings                   858
iv. Intent to Commit an Offence in the Building        859
v. The Ulterior Offence                                864
2. Aggravated Burglary                                     865
3. Going Equipped                                          866
i. Has with Him                                       867
ii. When not at his Place of Abode                     868
iii. Any Article                                       869
iv. For use in the Course of or in Connection with any
Burglary, Theft or Cheat                              869
15. CRIMINAL DAMAGE                                             872
1. Destroying or Damaging Property                           872
A. The Simple Offence                                     876
i. Belonging to Another                              876
ii. Without Lawful Excuse                             876
iii. Intending to Destroy or Damage any such          881
Property
iv. Being Reckless as to whether any such Property    883
would be Destroyed or Damaged
B. The Aggravated Offence: With Danger to Life           883
2. Other Offences                                            886



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Criminal law England, Criminal law Wales