Table of contents for Mechanical behavior of materials : engineering methods for deformation, fracture, and fatigue / Norman E. Dowling.


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1    Introduction                                                                1
1.1    Introduction  1
1.2    Types of Material Failure 2
1.3    Design and Materials Selection  10
1.4    Technological Challenge  16
1.5    Economic Importance of Fracture  18
1.6    Summary   19
References 20
Problems and Questions 20
2    Structure and Deformation in Materials                                     23
2.1    Introduction  23
2.2    Bonding in Solids 25
2.3    Structure in Crystalline Materials 29
2.4     Elastic Deformation and Theoretical Strength  33
2.5    Inelastic Deformation  38
2.6    Summary 44
References 45
Problems and Questions 46
3    A Survey of Engineering Materials                                          48
3.1    Introduction 48
3.2    Alloying and Processing of Metals 49
3.3    Irons and Steels 55
3.4    Nonferrous Metals 63
3.5    Polymers 67
3.6     Ceramics and Glasses 77
3.7     Composite Materials 83
3.8    Materials Selection for Engineering Components 88
3.9    Summary   94
References 96
Problems and Questions 97
4    Mechanical Testing: Tension Test and Other Basic Tests                   101
4.1    Introduction  101
4.2    Introduction to Tension Test 106
4.3    Engineering Stress-Strain Properties 111
4.4    Trends in Tensile Behavior 120
4.5    True Stress-Strain Interpretation of Tension Test 126
4.6     Compression Test 135
4.7    Hardness Tests 140
4.8    Notch-Impact Tests 147
4.9     Bending and Torsion Tests 152
4.10   Summary    158
References 159
Problems and Questions 160
5    Stress-Strain Relationships and Behavior                                 171
5.1    Introduction  171
5.2    Models for Deformation Behavior 172
5.3    Elastic Deformation  182
5.4    Anisotropic Materials 195
5.5    Summary   204
.References 206
Problems and Questions 206
6    Review of Complex and Principal States of Stress and Strain              214
6.1    Introduction 214
6.2    Plane Stress 215
6.3    Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stress 225
6.4    Three-Dimensional States of Stress 233
6.5    Stresses on the Octahedral Planes 240
6.6     Complex States of Strain  242
6.7    Summary   247
References 249
Problems and Questions 249
7    Yielding and Fracture under Combined Stresses                            254
7.1    Introduction  254
7.2    General Form of Failure Criteria 256
7.3    Maximum Normal Stress Fracture Criterion  258
7.4    Maximum Shear Stress Yield Criterion  261
7.5    Octahedral Shear Stress Yield Criterion  267
7.6    Discussion of the Basic Failure Criteria 274
7.7     Coulomb-Mohr Fracture Criterion  280
7.8    Modified Mohr Fracture Criterion  290
7.9    Additional Comments on Failure Criteria 297
7.10   Summary   300
References 301
Problems and Questions 302
8    Fracture of Cracked Members                                              312
8.1    Introduction  312
8.2    Preliminary Discussion  315
8.3    Mathematical Concepts 322
8.4     Application of K to Design and Analysis 326
8.5    Additional Topics on Application of K  337
8.6    Fracture Toughness Values and Trends 349
8.7    Plastic Zone Size, and Plasticity Limitations on LEFM  359
8.8    Discussion of Fracture Toughness Testing  368
8.9    Extensions of Fracture Mechanics Beyond Linear Elasticity  369
8.10   Summary   376
References 379
Problems and Questions 380
9    Fatigue of Materials: Introduction and Stress-Based Approach             391
9.1    Introduction  391
9.2    Definitions and Concepts 393
9.3    Sources of Cyclic Loading 404
9.4    Fatigue Testing  405
9.5    The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage 410
9.6    Trends in S-N Curves 413
9.7    Mean Stresses 426
9.8    Multiaxial Stresses 438
9.9    Variable Amplitude Loading 443
9.10   Summary 453
References 454
Problems and Questions 456
10   Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue: Notched Members                        466
10.1   Introduction 466
10.2   Notch Effects 468
10.3   Notch Sensitivity and Empirical Estimates of kf  472
10.4   Estimating Long-Life Fatigue Strengths (Fatigue Limits) 476
10.5   Notch Effects at Intermediate and Short Lives 481
10.6   Combined Effects of Notches and Mean Stress 484
10.7   Estimating S-N Curves 494
10.8   Use of Component S-N Data 502
10.9   Designing to Avoid Fatigue Failure 510
10.10  Discussion  516
10.11  Summary   517
References 519
Problems and Questions 520
11   Fatigue Crack Growth                                                     535
11.1   Introduction 535
11.2   Preliminary Discussion  536
11.3   Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Testing  544
11.4   Effects of R = Smin/Smax on Fatigue Crack Growth  549
11.5   Trends in Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior 559
11.6   Life Estimates for Constant Amplitude Loading  565
11.7   Life Estimates for Variable Amplitude Loading  576
11.8   Design Considerations 582
11.9   Plasticity Aspects and Limitations of LEFM for Fatigue Crack Growth  584
11.10  Environmental Crack Growth  591
11.11  Summary   596
References 598
Problems and Questions 599
12   Plastic Deformation Behavior and Models for Materials                    612
12.1   Introduction 612
12.2   Stress-Strain Curves 615
12.3   Three-Dimensional Stress-Strain Relationships 623
12.4   Unloading and Cyclic Loading Behavior from Rheological Models 631
12.5   Cyclic Stress-Strain Behavior of Real Materials 639
12.6    Summary    652
References 654
Problems and Questions 655
13   Stress-Strain Analysis of Plastically Deforming Members                     664
13.1    Introduction  664
13.2    Plasticity in Bending  665
13.3    Residual Stresses and Strains for Bending  674
13.4    Plasticity of Circular Shafts in Torsion  678
13.5    Notched Members 681
13.6    Cyclic Loading  693
13.7    Summary    704
References 705
Problems and Questions 706
14   Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue                                           715
14.1    Introduction  715
14.2    Strain Versus Life Curves 718
14.3    Mean Stress Effects 728
14.4    Multiaxial Stress Effects 736
14.5    Life Estimates for Structural Components 740
14.6   Discussion  750
14.7    Summary   758
References 759
Problems and Questions 760
15   Time-Dependent Behavior: Creep and Damping                                772
15.1   Introduction  772
15.2    Creep Testing  774
15.3   Physical Mechanisms of Creep  779
15.4   Time-Temperature Parameters and Life Estimates 790
15.5    Creep Failure under Varying Stress 802
15.6   Stress-Strain-Time Relationships 804
15.7    Creep Deformation under Varying Stress 810
15.8   Creep under Multiaxial Stress 817
15.9   Component Stress-Strain Analysis 820
15.10  Energy Dissipation (Damping) in Materials 825
15.11  Summary   834
References 836
Problems and Questions 837



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Materials, Materials Testing