Table of contents for Geography against development : a case for landlocked developing countries / by Anwarul K. Chowdhury and Sandagdorj Erdenebileg.


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Counter
The development quandary
of landlocked developing countries ...................1
I.  introduction  ....... ....     ...     . ...... ... . .3
Il. Economic and social underdevelopment................... .3
Economic performance of LLDCs................. .............
Foreign direct investment (FDI) .......... ....  .......... 7
Official development assistance (ODA) ....................10
Central government debt ............. . .. ... ..  ......  . ..13
Social performance of LLDCs  ......... .. .. ... ........... 13
Poverty alleviation  ........ . ..  .. .... ...  ........ . ..... 15
Health care provision . . .. .....  ... . . ....... ......   17
Educational attainment....... ...  .. .. .  ...... ..   .. .17
Il.  The burden of landlockedness........ .. .. .............. 18
High transport costs discourage trade in goods and services...18
Measuring LLDCs' transport costs ........   ....... ...... 20
CIF/FOB margins  ......... . . . ..  . ....  ...... .20
Ratio of freight-to-import costs .......... ........... 21
V. Why are LLDC transport costs so high? ....................24
Remoteness and isolation from major markets. ...... _......24
Lack of direct access to the sea ... ....... ... .. .... ...25
Infrastructure deficiencies within LLDCs....... ............27
Multimodal transportation ...........  .... ......... . ..29
V. High transport costs and export-led growth ...............32
Whither the East Asian model? ..  ..... ......... .... .....32
The competitiveness of domestic firms  ...................37
Expensive intermediate goods........................... 37
Excessive inventory costs .......... ................39
VI.  As if that weren't bad enough...  ........ ..... ........ 41
Diminished earnings from primary exports ...............41
Limited choice of trading  partners .. ........ . ...... .. ......42
Suppressing human capital accumulation ..................42
Obstructing technology diffusion ........................ 43
Less openness to the outside world .....................  43
VII.  Making  things better . .....  .. .. .... ......  ...... ... 45
Regional cooperation ... .....  .. .. .. ..  ...............45
Improving  infrastructure  . .... .....  ...  .... .    4..46
Trade  facilitation  .........   .... ..... ............ 47
2. Main transit transport corridors
around   the world  ......... ..........          .... .... 49
I  Transit transport corridors in East Africa  ......... ........ 51
Infrastructure  facilities  ... ..... .  .. ... .... .. .  ..  .53
Trade facilitation measures ........... ...   .   .. .. 56
II. Transit transport corridors in Southern Africa .............57
Infrastructure  facilities... .. .  .....  . .  ....  ...... .61
Trade facilitation  measures  ... .....-. . .... ........ .  63
il. Transit transport corridors in the Horn of Africa...........64
infrastructure  facilities. ......... .  ..............  66
IV. Transit transport corridors in West Africa ................68
Trade facilitation measures  . ..... .   ......     .  . 72
V. Transit transport corridors in Central Africa .............73
Trade facilitation  measures  . ....... . .............. 75
VI Transit transport corridors in Central Asia................  80
Infrastructure  facilities  .. .. ... . . .. .. ........... .81
Trade facilitation measures  ...... .. ..   ...... .... . .88
Afghanistan.. ..........                   ...... . ..... 90
Caucasus.... ....                .... .. ...... .... .  .92
Republic of Moldova  . .....    .... .   .  .......  . . 94
V I. Transit transport corridors in North-East Asia .............94
Infrastructure  . ...... ...  ... . .  ..  . . .  . .. .........  .  . 96
Trade facilitation measures  .........  . . .. ........... 97
VHII  Transit transport corridors in South Asia  ............ 99
IX. Transit transport corridors in South-East Asia ........... 104
X. Transit transport corridors in Latin America.............. 109
Infrastructure  facilities . . ... ... . .  .. .. .. ............ .113
Trade facilitation  measures  ....... ... .... .. ..  .. . .1 .115
3.  Legal framework for
transit cooperation.......... .          ..  ........ 117
I  introduction  ....... . . ..  .  . . .... .. .......  . 119
IL International conventions on freedom of transit ..........120
Definition  of traffic in  transit .  .... .. .. . .  ............ .120
Freedom of transit........... ................... 121
Most favoured nation status/equality of treatment..........122
Duties, taxes and other charges ...  .....  ....... ......... 123
Transit facilitation  ........ .... .... .. .... . . .. . . .   .123
II. International conventions governing
transit and transport operations ....... .... .... ...........  124
IV. Regional and subregional agreements .. ......... ..... 136
V.  Bilateral agreements ...... .... .  .. .. .... ...... .  138
VI.  Conclusion  .. ... ... ...     .    , . .. ..... .......141
4.  How can the international community
help landlocked developing countries? ..............1...43
. Why should the international community help LLDCs? ... .145
!i.  Trade facilitation  ....... .  ... . . .. .. ...  ,. .........   .1 49
ILl  Infrastructure development ........... ..... .... .  155
IV.  Regional cooperation.. . ... ... .. .. ..... .   .161
V.  Conclusion  ........ .             ... ....... . 163



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Developing countries Economic conditions, Economic geography, Transportation Developing countries, Landlocked states, Transit, International Developing countries, Transit by land (International law)