Table of contents for Conducting research in psychology : measuring the weight of smoke / Brett W. Pelham, Hart Blanton.


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C: APTER I      [lOW Do We Know' ?
Introduction: What This Text Is About 1
A Few Quick Tips for Using This Text 2
Preamble for Chapter 1 2
A Brief History of Human. Knowledge  4
Metaphysical Systems 4
Philosophy  6
Physiology and the Physical Sciences 7
Experimental Psychology  7
The Four Canons of Science  8
Determinism  8
Empiricism  12
Parsimony  14
Testabilitv  17
Four Ways of Knowing About the World  21
Summary    24
Study Questions  24
Notes  25
CHAPTER 2       [ow Do We Find Out?9           Tha Logic, Ar, and [thio
of    Fletofitie Diecovery     26
The Logic of Scientific Discovery  27
Laws, Theories, and Hypotheses 27
The Science of Observation  31
Three Approaches to Hypothesis Testing 34
The Art of Scientific Discovery  44
Inductive Techniques for Developing Ideas 45
Deductive Techniques for Developing ideas 47
The Ethics of Scientific Discovery  50
The Evolution of Ethical Guidelines 50
Modern Internal Review Boards and Risk-Benefit Analyses 52
A Primer in Ethical Guidelines 54
Sumrmary   57
Study Questions   57
Notes 58
CHAPTER3          Lk"                                                        T A
C-a "iv p    LA a i   i     i
Three Strange Stories  60
Validity 61
Internal Validity  61
Externai Validity 63
Construct Validity  64
Conceptual Validity  65
Reliability  68
Reliability, Validity, and the "More Is Better" Rule  72
Measurement Scales   73
Nominal Scales 74
Ordinal Scales 74
Interval Scales 74
Ratio Scales 75
The Validity of Measurement Assumptions 75
Summary    76
Study Questions   77
CHAPTER 4        M, f      ..
Converting Notions to Numbers: The Two Major Challenges   80
The Judgment Phase  81
Walking a Mile in Someone Else's Moccasins: Perspective Taking  81
Wording Questions Well for Everyone: Being Clear and Simple  86
The Response Translation Phase 97
The Number of Scale Points 97
The Importance of Anchors 98
Putting It All Together: The EGVWA Scale 103
Special Cases Require Special Scales  103
From Writing Questions to Creating Scales 105
Three Steps to Designing Questionnaires  106
Alternate Measures  107
Summary    112
Study Questions   113
CHAPTER 5
One Strange and Lucrative Story  116
People Are Different  117
Individual Differences and "Third Variables" 117
Selection Bias and Nonresponse Bias  118
People Change   120
History and Maturation 121
Regression Toward the Mean  122
The Process of Studying People Changes People  125
Testing Effects  126
Experimental Mortality (Attrition) 128
Participant Reaction Bias  130
Experimenter Bias  135
Moving From Three Threats to Two: Confounds and Artifacts  137
Confounds   l37
Artifacts  140
Confounds Versus Artifacts  143
Summary    143
Study Questions 143
Note 144
CHAPTER 6
Describing the World of a Single Participant: Case Studies  145
Please Dortt Try This at Home: The Case of Phineas Gage  146
My Life as a Dog: The Case of Stephen D. 147
Really, Really Late Night with Peter Tripp  148
The Life and Very Hard Times of Sarah  149
The Man Who Forgot His Wife and His Hat 150
What Makes a Case Study Scientific? 152
Describing the State of the World at Large: Single-Variable Research  1.53
Population Surveys  154
Epidemiological Research  156
Research on Public Opinion 157
Limitations and Drawbacks of Population Surveys  159
Single-Variable Convenience Samples  160
Describing Associations: Multiple-Variable Research  161
Correlational Methods  161
Person Confounds  163
Environmental Confounds  163
Operational Confounds  163
A Reminder About Reverse Causality  165
Archival Research  166
Observational Research  170
Confounds Can Be Measured Too!  172
Summary    174
Study Questions  174
Notes  175
CHAPTER 7       Expfiell-ence& CI         [11 Pk mi:nel
A Wonderful Method   176
A Brief History of True Experiments  177
Strengths of True Experiments  182
True Experiments Eliminate Individual Differences 182
True Experiments Eliminate Other Kinds of Confounds 184
True Experiments Pull Researchers into the Laboratory  186
True Experiments Allow Researchers to Observe the Invisible 186
True Experiments Provide information About Statistical Interactions 188
"True Experiments Minimize Noise  189
A Summary of Experimentation  190
Are True Experiments Realistic?  190
The Problem: Artificiality  191
The Solution: Two Forms of Realism  192
Is There a Recipe for Experimental Realism?  197
Trade-Offs Between Internal and External Validity  198
The "How-To"s of Laboratory Studies  202
Setting the Stage 202
Rehearsing and Playing the Part 204
When the Study Is Done: Replicate as Needed  206
Summary    208
Study Questions  209
Notes  209
CHAPTER 8       Exhwui-e j .      f    g [x   Ofit:
a"s           s - "- -  **  ^   *** " -- "~  -   B" *   * - - ^
One Very Old Story  211
Why Quasi-Experiments?   213
Kinds of Quasi-Experiments  214
Person-by-Treatment Quasi-Experiments 214
Natural Experiments 219
Nature and iTreatmnent Designs 221
Comparabilitv  224
Patched-Up Designs   225
ExaTiple 1: Evaluating a Teaching Tool 226
Exam-ple I. Would a Rose by Any Other Name Move to Rosemont? 232
When True Experiments and Quasi-Experiments Collide   235
umnmary    240
Study Questions  240
Notes  241
SFLAPTER 9                             .h  t     rh               24
One Obscure Movie    242
One-Way Designs    243
Factorial Designs  245
ins and Outs of Factorial Designs 245
Main Effects 247
Interactions 240
Within-Subjects Designs  258
Advantages of Within-Subjects Designs 258
Disadvantages of Within-Subjects Designs 260
Solutions 262
,Nixed-Model Designs  266
Summary    267
Study Questions  267
Notes 268
CHIAPT'ER 10               o;
Descriptive Statistics  270
Central 'endency and Dispersion  271
The Shape of Distributions 273
Inferential Statistics  276
Probability Theory  278
A Study of Cheating 281
'hings That Go Bump in the Light: Factors That Influence the Results
of Significance Tests  284
Alpha L-vels and Type I and iI Errors 284
Effect Size and Significance Testing  285
leasurement Error and Significance Testing  285
Sample Size andi Significance Testing  286
Restriction of Range and Significance Testing  286
The Changing State of the Art: Alternate Perspectives on Statistical Hypothesis
Testing  287
Estimates of Effect Size 288
Meta-Analysis 290
Summary 292
Study Questions  292
Notes 293
CHAPTER 11
The Hourglass Approach to Empirical Research Papers  295
Some "Rules" to Writing Research Papers  298
Rule 1: Be Correct 298
Rule 2: Be Clear 298
Rule 3: Be Comprehensive (but Discerning) 301
Rule 4: Be Concise 302
Rule 5: Be (Somewhat) Cautious 304
Rule 6: Be Assertive 305
Rule 7: Be Predictable 306
Rule 8: Be Creative 307
Rule 9: Be Original (and Cite Your Lack of Originality) 308
Rule 10: Be Gender Neutral 309
Rule 11: Be Easy on the Eyes 309
No More Rules 311
How to Give a Good Talk in Psychology (by Daniel T. Gilbert)  311
Have a Plan  311
Tell the Plan  313
Start at the Beginning 313
Be Painfully Clear 314
"Talk About One Interesting Thing 315
Take Charge of the Interaction  316
End at the End  317
Summary    317
Study Questions  318
CHAPTER 12
i. In Search of a Delicious. Low-Fat TV Show  320
2 Let's Get Supernatural 320
3. Fly Away Home  320
4. Impressive Pickup Lines  321
5. Clever Who?  321
0. Life Sucks and 5:o Yo u Die  322
7. On the Drawbacks of Liking Yourself 322
8. The Early Bird Gets the Win?  323
9. Testosterone Makes Better Dive Bombers  323
10. Working Your Fingers to the Dean's List 324
11. To Thine Own Selves Be True  324
12. A Rosy Mood by Any Other Name?   324
13. Old Geniuses Never Die Young?  325
14. Sampling Student Opinion  325
15. im Speechless  326
16. He May Be Small but He's Slow  327
17. Everyone's a Winner  328
18. Can a Couple of Beers Really Go Straight to Your Belly?  328
19. What's in a Name?  328
20. Are You Threatening Me?  329
APPENDIX 1
Hands-On Activity 1  332
aliieo's Dice  332
Group i (the Logical Counters of Ways) 333
Group 2 (the Logical Expected Evaluators) 333
Groups 3 and/or 4 (the Empiricists) 333
What About Intuition and Authority? 334
More Detailed Instructions for Groups 1 and 2  334
Questions  336
Hands-On Activity 2  336
Regression Toward the Mean  336
Questions for Group Discussion  338
Special Notes to the Instructor 338
Hands-On Activity 3  339
A Double-Bind Taste Test with Popular Colas 339
Information for the Experimenter 339
Instructions for Participants in the Cola Taste Test 340
Questions for Students 340
Hands-On Activity 4  344
The Stroop Interference Effect 344
Advance Preparation  345
Task Instructions 345
Methodological Notes 36



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Psychology Research Methodology, Psychology, Experimental