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1 Fundamentals of Reservoir Fluid Behavior ........... 1 Classification of Reservoirs and Reservoir Fluids, 1; Problems, 27; References, 27 2 Reservoir-Fluid Properties ...... ............ ...... 29 Properties of Natural Gases, 29; Behavior of Ideal Gases, 30; Behavior of Real Gases, 36; Effect of Nonhydrocarbon Components on the Z-Factor, 44; Correction for High-Molecular Weight Gases, 49; Direct Calculation of Compressibility Factors, 54; Compressibility of Natural Gases, 59; Gas Formation Volume Factor, 65; Gas Viscosity, 67; Methods of Calculating the Viscosity of Natural Gases, 68; Properties of Crude Oil Systems, 75; Methods of Calculating Viscosity of the Dead Oil, 115; Methods of Calculating the Saturated Oil Viscosity, 117; Methods of Calculating the Viscosity of the Undersaturated Oil, 119; Properties of Reservoir Water, 124; Problems, 126; References, 133 3 Laboratory Analysis of Reservoir Fluids ............. 136 Composition of the Reservoir Fluid, 137; Constant-Composition Expansion Tests, 137; Differential Liberation (Vaporization) Test, 149; Separator Tests, 152; Extrapolation of Reservoir Fluid Data, 164; Laboratory Analysis of Gas Condensate Systems, 171; Problems, 184; References, 188 4 Fundamentals of Rock Properties ................... 189 Porosity, 190; Saturation, 195; Wettability, 199; Surface and Interfacial Tension, 200; Capillary Pressure, 203; Permeability, 227; Rock Compressibility, 254; Net Pay Thickness, 260; Reservoir Heterogeneity, 261; Areal Heterogeneity, 274; Problems, 281; References, 286 5 Relative Permeability Concepts ..................... 288 Two-Phase Relative Permeability, 289; Relative Permeability Ratio, 308; Dynamic Pseudo-Relative Permeabilities, 311; Normalization and Averaging Relative Permeability Data, 313; Three-Phase Relative Permeability, 320; Problems, 329; References, 330 6 Fundamentals of Reservoir Fluid Flow ............... 331 Types of Fluids, 332; Flow Regimes, 334; Reservoir Geometry, 336; Number of Flowing Fluids in the Reservoir, 339; Fluid Flow Equations, 340; Steady-State Flow, 342; Unsteady-State Flow, 373; Constant-Terminal-Pressure Solution, 384; Constant-Terminal-Rate Solution, 384; Pseudosteady-State Flow, 413; Principle of Superposition, 442; Transient Well Testing, 453; Problems, 476; References, 482 7 Oil Well Performance .................. ........... 484 Vertical Oil Well Performance, 484; Horizontal Oil Well Performance, 528; Problems, 542; References, 544 8 Gas Well Performance ............................ 546 Vertical Gas Well Performance, 546; Horizontal Gas Well Performance, 577; Problems, 580; References, 581 9 Gas and Water Coning ........................... 583 Coning, 584; Coning in Vertical Wells, 587; Breakthrough Time in Vertical Wells, 620; After Breakthrough Performance, 624; Coning in Horizontal Wells, 629; Horizontal Well Breakthrough Time, 638; Problems, 646; References, 648 10 Water Influx....... ........................... . 650 Classification of Aquifers, 651; Recognition of Natural Water Influx, 654; Water Influx Models, 655; Problems, 728; References, 731 11 Oil Recovery Mechanisms and the Material Balance Equation ...................................... 733 Primary Recovery Mechanisms, 734; The Material Balance Equation, 752; Problems, 806; References, 809 12 Predicting Oil Reservoir Performance ............. 810 Phase 1. Reservoir Performance Prediction Methods, 811; Phase 2. Relating Reservoir Performance to Time, 850; Problems, 853; References, 854 13 Gas Reservoirs .................................. 855 The Volumetric Method, 856; The Material Balance Method, 859; Material Balance Equation as a Straight Line, 874; Abnormally Pressured Gas Reservoirs, 880; Problems, 906; References, 908 14 Principles of Waterflooding........................ 909 Factors to Consider in Waterflooding, 910; Optimum Time to Waterflood, 915; Effect of Trapped Gas on Waterflood Recovery, 917; Selection of Flooding Patterns, 927; Overall Recovery Efficiency, 932; I. Displacement Efficiency, 934; II. Areal Sweep Efficiency, 985; III. Vertical Sweep Efficiency, 1041; Methods of Predicting Recovery Performance for Layered Reservoirs, 1058; Waterflood Surveillance, 1069; Problems, 1085; References, 1094 15 Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria.................... 1096 Vapor Pressure, 1096; Equilibrium Ratios, 1099; Flash Calculations, 1103; Equilibrium Ratios for Real Solutions, 1107; Equilibrium Ratios for the Plus Fraction, 1120; Applications of the Equilibrium Ratio in Reservoir Engineering, 1122; Equations of State, 1154; Applications of the Equation of State in Petroleum Engineering, 1194; Splitting and Lumping Schemes of the Plus-Fraction, 1207; Problems, 1225; References, 1229 16 Analysis of Decline and Type Curves .......... .... 1235 Decline-Curve Analysis, 1235; Type-Curve Analysis, 1264; Problems, 1333; References, 1335

Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Oil reservoir engineering, Oil fields, Gas reservoirs