Table of contents for A handbook on criminal procedure in Kenya / P.L.O. Lumumba.


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Chapter I: The Nature of Criminal Prosecutions                                                                     1
A  .  Introduction       ....................................................................................    1
B.    The Attorney-General's constitutional position ..................                      .........           1
C.    Private prosecution .......................................................................     .         3
D. Limitation of time ........................................................             .............        5
E.    Conclusion ..............................                         ............ ...................        6
Chapter II: Methods of Controlling Prosecutions                                                                    8
A.    Introduction ...................................................................................          8
B  .  Nolle  Prosequi ................    ..........................................................          8
C  .  Withdrawal .....................................................................................   11
Chapter III: Arrest                                                                                               12
A.    Introduction ....................................................................................        12
B.    Arrest without warrant ....................................................................              12
C. Arrest with warrant .......               ....................................................................... .  14
D  .  Others .............................................................................................  16
E .   Conclusion     ................. ... ...... .......... .... .........................................   16
Chapter IV: Searches and Search Warrants                                                                          17
A.    Introduction ..................................................................................          17
B.    Searches with a search warrant .........................................................          17
C. Searches without a search warrant ........................................  ....................     19
D  .  Conclusion    ......................................................................................  20
Chapter V: Bail                                                                                            22
A .   Introduction     ....................................................................................  22
B .  Bail  in  Kenya...................................................................................  23
C. Constitution of Kenya (Amendment) Act number 20 of 1987 ..........                                   26
D. The abolition of the discretion of the High Court............................                        26
E.    Pre-trial bail ........      ...........         ...................................... .......... .............  28
F.   Bail pending appeal .......          ........................................................      32
G. Bail pending appeal on a plea of guilty ........................................        ......       33
H. Sureties .................................................................................. .. .     36
I.   Bail bond   .................................................................................. ...  38
J.    Renewal of bail application .....................................       ....... .............      39
K. Bail as viewed by courts ...............           .........   ......................................  40
L.   Variance between law and practice ..................................................     42
'M. Suggested reforms ............................................................................       43
N. The law  of bail: Further thoughts on reform             ....................................   43
Chapter VI: Charges and Information                                                                        48
A  .  Introduction     ....................................................................................  48
B.    Charges ...................................................  ............ ......... ..............  48
C. Effect of citing wrong or non-existing sections .................................                    49
D. Particulars of the offence charged ....................................................              51
E.    Lack of particulars and wrong ingredients..........................................               52
F.   General form       .................. ...................... ......... ................. .............. .  54
G. Joinder of counts ................. .............................................................    55
H. Joinder of persons .....................................................................  ....       57
I.   Duplicity  ......... . ..............................................................................   59
J.    Alternative charges ..............         ................... ................................... ..  62
K. Amendment of charges ..........................            .......................................   63
L.   Amendment after conviction ...........................................................        64
M. Quashing of infonnation ................................................       ............     64
N  .  Conclusion  ................................................. .....................................  6 5
Chapter VII: Pleas                                                                                    67
A     Intrduction  ..................................................................................  6 7
3.   Plea taking in the subordinate courts .............................................           67
C .  Recording    of pleas ......................................................... .... .......  67
I)   Plea of Aurrefois acquit, Autrefois convict and pardon......................                  69
E.   Change of plea and the Functus Officio Rule .....................................             70
F.   Plea  bargaining    .............................................................. ............ ... ..   70
Chapter VIII: Trial Procedure in the Subordinate
Courts                                                                                                72
72_
A .  Introduction     ................................................................ ...........   72
13.  The structure and jurisdiction of criminal courts ..............................              72
C .  Trial procedure:     ....................................... ............................. ...... .  73
I).  Submissions  ....................................................................................  76
Chapter IX: Transfer of Cases                                                                        77
A .  Introduction     .......................................................................... ..   77
13.  Factors   giving   rise  to  transfer.............................................................  77
C.     Effects of transfer ..............................................................................  80
Chapter X: Some Thoughts on Committal
Proceedings                                                                                          81
A. Introduction ..............................................................    ...........      81
13.  Preliminary  inquiry   ..........................................................................  81
C .  Committal proceedings ....................................................................  84
1). A critique of preliminary inquiry .................................................    .       86
F.   Committal proceedings and constitutional rights ..............................                87
F.   Conclusion    ................................................................................  87
Chapter XI: Trial in the High Court                                                                                                89
A.     Introduction ....................................................................................                        89
B.     Committal proceedings and the committal bundle                 ...........................           89
C     Arraignment and  the plea .................................................................                   92
D.     Taking      the plea: ............           .. ...............................................................          94
E. Procedure if accused stands mute; insane, mute of
malice deaf and/or dumb.................................................................                                 98
F.     Procedure if accused pleads guilty ....................................................                                100
G.     The hearing          and    conduct of the trial ................                ..............................        101
H.     Conduct of the case and                 order of hearing .........................................                     101
I.     Summing          up   to  assessors .....................................................................              107
J.     The role and           conduct ofjudges and                 assessors ...................................               109
K. Judgnlent and               sentence ....................................................................                  111
L.     Conclusion ......................................................................................                      112
Chapter XII: Assessors                                                                                                           113
A.     Introduction ....................................................................................                      113
B.     Evaluation        of the Assessors System                in   Kenya        ..................................          113
C.     The Assessors System                and    the Jury      System      .........................................         115
D.     Procedural aspect of the Assessor System                          ..........................................           116
E.     Selection       of assessors ........................................................................                  116
F.     Assessor in       court ..............................................................................                 120
G.     Opinion        of assessors .........................................................................                  123
H.     Assessors as expert........................................                 ....................................       124
I.     Evaluation        and    recommendations ....................................................                          125
J.     A   Case of Reform             ...........................................................................              126
Chapter XIII: Procedure in Cases of Insanity                                                                                     127
A.     Introduction ....................................................................................                      127
B. Procedure in case of lunacy or other incapacity of the
accused      person.................................................................................                   128
C. Resumption of proceedings .............................................................       129
I-.  Refusal to  plead  insanity  ..................................................................  133
E.   Insanic    and  the  prosecution    ............................................................  133
F.   The  Position     in  K enya .....................................................................  137
G. Insaniitv as a defence: The verdict of "Guilty but insane"
versus "Not guilty on account of insanity"......................................     .     139
H. Insanity: Evolution ............................................................. ........    139
I.   "Guilty but insane" or Not guilty on account of insanity"................                   140
J.   Insanity as an absence of mensrea ..........................         .....................  141
K. Procedure after finding of guilty and sanity ..............            ................. .....   142
I,.  An evaluation of the procedure .......................................................     143
Chapter XIV: Judgment                                                                              146
A.   Introduction ......................................................................         146
1 .  Delivery  ..........................................................................................  146
C. Fori and content .......................................................................... .148
D. Minor and cognate offences .......................................     ....................  149
E.   Order of judgment                  ............................. .............................................  151
F.   Conclusion    ......................................................................................  151
Chapter XV: Sentences                                                                              152
A .  Introduction    .............................................................................. ......   152
B.   Historical development of sentencing and punishment ...................                    152
C .  Objectives  of sentencing    ................... . ......................... ...................  154
D. The available sentences          ....................................................................   155
E.   Alternatives to imprisonment ...........................................................   162
F.   Compensation: Revisited..........................       ..........................................  163
H .  Costs  ............................................................ .....................  16 4
I.   Sentencing     in  traffic  case  ..................................................................  165
J.    Young persons and sentencing ..............          . .........................................  165
K .  Sentencing     in  Kenya ............. ...  .......................................................  166
L. Concurrent and consecutive sentences .............................................  167
M. Alteration of sentence and committal ...............   ...... ......................  169
N .  Committals ......................................................................................  170
Chapter XVI: Contempt of Court Proceedings                                      173
A .  Introduction  .......................................... .................................... .  173
B. Contempt of court in court proceedings .........................................  173
C .  Criminal contem pt ...................................... ...................... ........ ........... .  174
D .  Contempt in  the  face  of court ..........................................................  174
E. Criminal contempt outside court .................................. ...................  174
F.  Purpose  of   punishm ent ............. .................. ... ........................ ..........  175
G .  Persons  Liable ..................................................................................  176
H .  Appeals  from   order ..................... ... ................ ........ ...................  176
I.  Execution  and  discharge ............... ........ ......... . .... ...... ... ................   177
Chapter XVII: Appeals                                                           178
A .  Introduction  ........... ...................................................................  178
B. Appeals from subordinate courts ................... ..................................  178
C. Competence of appeals under section 348(A) ...................................  179
D .  Limitation  of time  ........ .......................................... ..................  180
E. Summary rejection and precision of the appeals ................. ..........   181
F. Summary allowance of appeals .................... .... ......... ..... ................   183
G. Admission of additional evidence on appeal ......................................  183
H. Appeals from the High Court ....................................... ...................  185
I.  Constitution of the court in its appellate jurisdiction ......................  186
J.   Appeal in the absence of written records .........................................  187
K .  Conclusion  .................................................................... ......... ........  187
Chapter XVIII: Direction in the Nature of Habeas
Corpus                                                                        189
A.  Introduction .... ................. ... .. ..... ......... ........ ...........................  189
B. Territorial Ambit of Habeas Corpus .............................. .................  190
C. Habeas Corpus under Kenyan Law ..................................................  190
D. Application of Habeas Corpus under Kenyan Law ...........................     192
Chapter XIX: Revisions                                                             193
A .  Introduction  .. .............................................. ..................... ..... ...... .  193
B   Revision  in  practice ........................................................................ .  194
C. Extent of powers of revision .................. .........................................  197
D. Revisional jurisdiction when right of appeal exists
and is not exercised ............................................................... .  200
E. A finding ofAutrefois acquit and revision ........................................  202
F. Effect of revision of a civil case upon a criminal case
based  on  the  same  facts .............................. . ................. .....................  203
Chapter XX: Re-trial                                                               204
A .  Introduction  ........................ ....................................... ........................... .  204
.   Orders for  retrial ...............................................................................  204
Chapter XXI: Inquiries as to sudden deaths                                         210
A .  Introduction  ....... .............................................................................  2 10
B .  Inquest jurisdiction  .... .................................. .. ......... ........... .. ....................... .  210
C. Inquest where death occurs in police custody or prison....................    210
D .  Findings  after  inquest ............. ...............................................................  210
E .  Conclusion  .......... ................ .......................................... ..... .............   2 1  1



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Criminal procedure Kenya