Table of contents for Adverse drug reactions / edited by Anne Lee.


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Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xv
About the editor xvii
Contributors xix
1     Introduction                                        1
Epidemiology 3
Classification and mechanisms 7
Susceptibility 8
Detection and diagnosis 12
Healthcare professionals and adverse drug reactions 16
References 18
Further reading 22
2      Side effects and patients                         23
Introduction 23
Desire for information about side effects 25
General perceptions 26
Side effects and compliance 28
Mandatory patient information leaflets 29
Format of side-effect data for patients 29
Key effects to consider when presenting side-effect data 32
Patient reporting of ADRs 37
The way forward 38
References 39
Further reading 41
3      Pharmacogenetics and adverse drug reactions       43
Introduction 43
Adverse drug reactions 44
Drug action 44
Genetics revisited 45
Genetic polymorphism and drug transporters 46
Genetically determined pharmacodynamic variations 57
Human leukocyte antigens and adverse drug reactions 59
Utility of pharmacogenetics in the clinical setting 61
References 64
Further reading 71
Glossary 71
4      Adverse drug reactions in pregnancy                 75
Introduction 75
Prescribing in pregnancy 78
Drugs used to treat selected cardiovascular
system disorders 82
Drugs used to treat epilepsy 87
Mental health disorders 90
Drugs used in endocrine disorders 98
Drugs used to treat infections 104
Miscellaneous agents 106
Summary   111
Case studies 112
References 114
Further reading  123
Glossary 123
5      Drug-induced skin reactions                        125
Introduction  125
Classification and mechanism 126
Diagnosis 127
Management points 129
Exanthematous (erythematous) reactions 130
Fixed drug eruption  131
Urticaria and angio-oedema  132
Acne 135
Psoriasis and psoriasiform eruptions 135
Purpura  137
Vasculitis 137
Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
and toxic epidermal necrolysis 139
Blistering drug eruptions 142
Photosensitivity 143
Lichenoid drug eruptions 145
Pigmentary disorders 146
Alopecia 147
Hair gain 148
Nail disorders 149
Case studies 150
References 153
Further reading  156
6      Gastrointestinal disorders                        157
Introduction  157
The mouth 157
The oesophagus 163
Nausea and vomiting  164
Stomach and duodenum 166
Small intestine  174
Colon 177
Constipation 181
Pancreatitis 182
Case studies 183
References 185
Further reading  191
7      Hepatic disorders                                 193
Introduction  193
Classification and mechanisms 193
Signs and symptoms of liver disorders 194
Risk factors 195
Diagnosis of drug-induced liver damage 198
Types of drug-induced liver disease 201
Management of patients with drug-induced
hepatic disease 209
Prevention of drug-induced hepatic damage 209
Case studies 211
References 214
Further reading 216
8      Renal disorders                                   217
Introduction 217
Risk factors 218
Diagnosis of drug-induced renal dysfunction 218
Acute renal failure 218
Chronic renal failure 233
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 234
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome 235
Osmotic nephrosis 236
Conclusion 236
Case studies 237
References 240
Further reading 244
9      Endocrine and metabolic disorders               245
Introduction 245
Drugs affecting thyroid function 245
Medicines that may interfere with thyroid function tests 249
Drugs affecting adrenal function 250
Aldosterone synthesis 252
Drugs affecting gonadotrophin release and
gonadal function 253
Hyperprolactinaemia 255
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of
antidiuretic hormone 256
Hyperglycaemia and diabetes 258
Hypoglycaemia 260
Disorders of fat metabolism 262
Case studies 263
References 265
Further reading 268
10    Respiratory disorders                            269
Introduction 269
Nasal congestion 269
Airway obstruction 270
Parenchymal lung disorders 277
Pulmonary oedema 282
Pulmonary thromboembolism  284
Case studies 284
References 287
Further reading 292
11    Musculoskeletal disorders                        293
Introduction 293
Muscle disorders 293
Bone 300
Joints 308
Connective tissue 310
Case studies 316
References 320
Further reading 325
12    Blood disorders                                  327
Introduction 327
Aplastic anaemia 330
Agranulocytosis 334
Thrombocytopenia 337
Pure red cell aplasia 340
Haemolytic anaemia 340
Megaloblastic anaemia 342
Case studies 343
References 346
Further reading 348
13    Mental health disorders                          349
Introduction 349
Depression 350
Psychosis 352
Mania 356
Behavioural toxicity 357
Cognitive impairment 358
Psychiatric manifestations of drug withdrawal
reactions 362
Use of SSRIs and venlafaxine in children and adolescents with
major depressive disorder (MDD) 364
Serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant
syndrome 364
Management of drug-induced psychiatric disturbances 367
Case studies 368
References 369
Further reading 372
14    Cardiovascular effects                           375
Introduction 375
Disorders of cardiac rhythm 375
Disorders of systemic blood pressure 382
Congestive heart failure 387
Myocardial toxicity 388
Pulmonary hypertension 390
Stroke and heart attack risk 391
Case studies 392
References 395
Further reading 398
15    Neurological disorders                          399
Introduction 399
Headache 400
Effects on the neuromuscular junction and
myasthenia gravis 404
Seizures 406
Coma and encephalopathy 408
Neuropathies 410
Guillain-Barre syndrome 413
Drug-induced movement disorders 413
Sudden sleep onset with dopaminergic drugs 417
Case studies 418
References 421
16    Sexual dysfunction and infertility              425
Introduction 425
Infertility 426
Sexual dysfunction 431
Case studies 439
References 441
Further reading 445



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Drugs Side effects Handbooks, manuals, etc