Table of contents for Hurricane Ivan in Alabama and Florida : observations, recommendations, and technical guidance / [Mitigation Assessment Team].


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog
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1       Introduction  ....................................................................................................... . .  1-1
1.1     Hurricane   Ivan  -  The  Event........................................................................................... 1-1
1.1.1     Storm   Surge Analysis and Discussion .........................................................  1-6
1.1.2     Wind Analysis and Discussion .....................................................................  1-22
1.2     Historical Hurricanes (Frequency of Hurricanes and Tropical
Storms in Eastern Coastal Alabama and Florida Panhandle) ..................................      1-29
1.3     FEMA Mitigation Assessment Teams .................................................................... 1-31
1.3.1     Methodology    ............. ........... .................................................... ............ 1-31
1.3.2     Team  Composition.......................................................................... ....... 1-32
2       Floodplain Management Regulations and Building Codes
and   Standards ........................................... 2-1
2.1     Floodplain Management Regulations......................................................................... 2-1
2.1.1     Flood Studies, Flood Maps, and Floodplain Management
Regulations ......................... .......................................................................  2-3
2.1.2     Higher Regulatory Standards..................................................................... 2-5
2.1.3     Relating Observed Flood Damages to the FIRMs ..........................................2-5
2.1.3.1      Baldwin County, Alabama ........................................................... 2-6
2.1.3.2      Santa Rosa County, Florida ..........................................................2-10
2.2     Building Codes and Standards.............................................................................2-17
2.2.1     Flood Requirements in Building Codes and Standards -
Alabama  .................................................................................................... . ... 2-17
2.2.1.1     Flood Provisions in the IBC (2003) .........................................2-18
2.2.1.2     Flood Provisions in the IRC (2003) ..........................................2-18
2.2.1.3     Flood Requirements in ASCE 7.................................................2-18
2.2.1.4     Flood Requirements in ASCE 24............................................2-18
2.2.1.5     Coastal Construction Control Line (Alabama) .....................2-19
2.2.2     Flood Requirements in Building Codes and Standards -
Florida........................................................................................................ . 2-20
2.2.2.1     Flood Provisions in the FBC (2004 Edition) .........................2-20
2.2.2.2     Coastal Construction Control Line (Florida) ..........................2-20
2.2.3     Wind Requirements in Building Codes and Standards -
Alabama  ......... .............................................................................................. 2-22
2.2.3.1     Comparing Design Wind Speeds ..............................................2-22
2.2.3.2     Comparing Design Wind Pressures.............................................2-24
2.2.4     Wind Requirements in Building Codes and Standards -
Florida .............................. ......................................................................... . . 2-26
2.2.4.1     Comparing Design Wind Speeds ................................................2-28
2.2.4.2     Comparing Calculated Wind Pressures ................................. 2-30
2.2.4.3     Comparing Debris Impact Requirements ................................2-32
2.2.4.4     High-Wind Elements of the Code............................................2-33
GENERAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGE.................................           ...................... 3-1
Flood  Effects................................................................................................................... . 3-1
3.1.1     Flood Effects on One- and Two-Family Housing.........................................3-2
3.1.2     Flood Effects on Multi-Family Housing ........................................................3-9
Wind  Effects  ............................. ......... ...............................................................  3-13
3.2.1     Summary of Damage Types ..................................................................... 3-13
3.2.2     Wind Effects on One- and Two-Family Housing ........................................3-15
3.2.3     Wind Effects on Multi-Family Housing.......................................................3-16
3.2.4     Wind Effects on Commercial Buildings......................................................3-18
3.2.5     Wind Effects on Critical/Essential Facilities ................................................3-19
Lessons Learned     and  Best Practices ........................................................... ..........3-20
4       STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE ........................................................... 4-1
4.1     Flood   ...................................................... ......................................................................... 4-1
4.1.1      Single-Family Residential Buildings............................................................4-1
4.1.1.1 Pile Foundations ................................................................................4-2
4.1.1.2  Slab  on  Grade......................................................................................4-12
4.1.1.3  Stem   Walls ......................................................................................4-15
4.1.1.4  Piers ................................................................... ............................  4-17
4.1.2      Multi-Family Residential Buildings ..........................................................4-21
4.1.2.1 Shallow Foundations ........................... ..........................................4-21
4.1.2.2  Pile  Foundations   ............................................................................ . 4-27
4.1.3      Miscellaneous Structures .............. .... ...... ........... ... ...................................... 4-32
4.1.3.1  Bulkheads .................................... .................................................  4-32
4.1.3.2 Non-Structural Slabs ........................................ .......................... 4-35
4.1.3.3 Breakaway Walls ............................................................... ........ ......... 4-37
4.1.3.4  Utilities ............... ... ................ ............... ...................................... 4-39
4.1.3.5 Stairs ............................................................................................ 4-44
4.1.4   Debris Impacts           .........     ...........................................................  4-45
4.2     Wind     ............................. ........ ......... ....... ........... ...............................................4-50
4.2.1   Wood  Frames ................... .... .................. .......................... ....... ..................  4-50
4.2.2      Concrete   Buildings ................ ........ ........ ................................................. 4-59
4.2.3      Commercial Buildings ................................. ....................................... 4-59
4.2.4     Pre-Engineered Metal Buildings ............                ..........................................................4-60
4.2.5     Accessory Structures        ............... ............................................................. 4-62
5       BUILDING ENVELOPE PERFORMANCE ...............................................................5-1
5.1     Sheathing on the Underside of Elevated Buildings ....................................................5-2
5.2     Doors .................................................... ................................................................... 5-4
5.2.1     Personnel Door Damage .............                  .......................5...................... 5-4
5.2.2      Garage Door Damage ......................................................................................5-6
5.2.3      Rolling and Sectional Door Damage ...........................................................5-7
5.3     Non-Load-Bearing Walls, Wall Coverings, and Soffits ........................ ...                  5-7
5.3.1      Non-Load-Bearing Walls .................................................................. ........ 5-7
5.3.2     Wall Coverings and Soffits ............................ .............................................. 5-23
5.4     Roof  Systems........ ................... ....... ..... .... ... ........................................................ 5-33
5.4.1     Asphalt Shingles ......   ........ ........ ................................................................ 5-33
5.4.2      Tile  ....... ............ .... .. .................................................................................5-36
5.4.3      Metal Panel and Shingle Roofs ........        ................... .......................................5-44
5.4.4      Low-slope Membrane Systems ....................       ............. .................................. 5-46
5.5     Windows, Shutters, and Skylights..............................................................................5-51
5.5.1      Unprotected Glazing         ................................... ........................................5-51
5.5.2      Protected Glazing .................................... ............................................. .... 5-54
5.5.3      Skylights ......................................................... ............................................. 5-56
5.6     Exterior Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Damage ........................           ............... 5-57
5.6.1      Rooftop HVAC Equipment .......................................................................... 5-58
5.6.2      Electrical and Communications Equipment............................................ 5-62
6        PERFORMANCE OF CRITICAL AND ESSENTIAL FACILITIES .................................. 6-1
6.1     Emergency Operation Centers ............................................... .................................6-2
6.1.1      General Damage  .................. ............ ..... .............. ..........................................  6-2
6.1.2      Functional Loss    ........................ .......... ............................ ............................6-3
6.2      Hospitals ...................................................................................................................6-4
6.2.1      General Damage  ............................................................................................ .   6-4
6.2.2      Functional Loss ................... ................ ........... . ...................................... .   6-5
6.2.3      Best Practices - Hospitals ............................................................................6-7
6 .3     Schools .................................................................... .................................................. . 6-7
6.3.1      General Damage  .... .... ................................................................. ............... 6-8
6.3.2      Functional Loss ...................................................................................................6-10
6.4     Shelters   ............................................... .. ................. ................................. ........... ......6- 10
6.4.1      General Damage  ......................... .....o.................................................... ........ 6-10
6.4.2      Functional   Loss  ......................................................................... ..................  6-11



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Hurricane Ivan, 2004, Hurricanes Alabama, Hurricanes Florida