Table of contents for Essentials of environmental health / Robert H. Friis.


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Part I.     Background of the Field
Chapter 1. Introduction: The Environment at Risk                              3
Introduction                                                      3
Significance of the Environment for Human Health                  5
Population and the Environment                                    7
Definitions Used in the Environmental Health Field               14
Historical Background                                            16
Careers in the Environmental Health Field                        20
Conclusion and Overview of the Text                              22
Study Questions and Exercises                                    23
Chapter 2. Environmental Epidemiology                                              25
Introduction                                                           25
Definition of Environmental Epidemiology                               26
Contributions of Epidemiology to Environmental Health                  27
Brief History of Environmental Epidemiology                            29
Strategies of Environmental Epidemiology                               31
Causality in Epidemiologic Studies                                     36
Bias in Environmental Epidemiologic Studies                            38
Limitations and Deficiencies of Environmental Epidemiology             39
Conclusion                                                             40
Study Questions and Exercises                                          42
Chapter 3. Environmental Toxicology                                                45
Introduction                                                           45
Description of Toxicology                                              46
Terminology Used in the Field of Toxicology                            47
The Concept of a Dose and Related Terms                                48
Factors That Affect Responses to a Toxic Chemical                      51
Links between Toxicology and Risk Assessment                           54
Conclusion                                                             59
Study Questions and Exercises                                          60
Chapter 4. Environmental Policy and Regulation                                     63
Introduction                                                           63
Overview of the Environmental Policy Process                           64
Risk Assessment and Policy Development                                 68
Case Studies: Environmental Policies to Protect Human Health           70
Agencies Involved in the Adoption, Implementation, and
Enforcement of Environmental Policies                                74
Major U.S. Environmental Health Laws                                   77
Conclusion                                                             81
Study Questions and Exercises                                          82
Part II.    Agents of Environmental Disease
Chapter 5. Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Diseases                                       87
Introduction                                                            87
Terminology Used in the Context of Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Diseases   87
Examples of Vector-Borne Diseases                                       88
Arthropod-Borne Viral Diseases (Arboviral Diseases)                    100
Emerging Zoonoses                                                      101
Other Zoonotic Diseases                                                110
Control and Prevention of Mosquito-Borne Diseases                      114
Conclusion                                                             116
Study Questions and Exercises                                          117
Chapter 6. Toxic Metals and Elements                                               119
Introduction                                                           119
The Top 20 Hazardous Substances                                        119
Overview of Sources and Effects of Exposure to Metals                  120
Toxic Heavy Metals                                                     124
Essential Metals with Potential for Toxicity                           134
Metals for Use in Medical Therapy                                      136
Conclusion                                                             136
Study Questions and Exercises                                          137
Chapter 7. Pesticides and Other Organic Chemicals                                  141
Introduction                                                           141
Chemicals in the ATSDR List of Top 20 Hazardous Substances             143
Pesticides                                                             145
Dioxins                                                                154
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)                                       155
Organic Solvents                                                       157
Chemicals Used in the Manufacture of Plastics                          159
Cleaning and Household Products                                        159
Environmental Estrogens                                                159
Conclusion                                                             161
Study Questions and Exercises                                          162
Chapter 8.   Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation                                 165
Introduction                                                       165
Overview of Ionizing Radiation                                     166
Types of Ionizing Radiation                                        166
Measurement of Ionizing Radiation Dose Units                       167
Health Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation                   168
Sources of Environmental Exposure to Ionizing Radiation            171
Medical Uses of Ionizing Radiation                                 178
Nuclear Waste Disposal                                             179
Nonionizing Radiation                                              179
Sources of Exposure to Nonionizing Radiation                       180
Conclusion                                                         188
Study Questions and Exercises                                      189
Part III. Applications of Environmental Health
Chapter 9.   Water Quality                                                      195
Introduction                                                       195
The Water Supply                                                   197
Treatment of Water for Residential Consumption                     204
Drinking Water Contamination                                       208
Beach and Coastal Pollution                                        219
Conclusion                                                         225
Study Questions and Exercises                                      226
Chapter 10. Air Quality                                                         229
Introduction                                                       229
Notorious Air Pollution Episodes in History                        231
Sources and Causes of Air Pollution                                232
Components of Air Pollution                                        237
Air Quality Standards                                              243
Health Effects of Air Pollution                                    244
Indoor Air Quality                                                 249
Global Climate Change and Global Warming                           253
Controlling Air Pollution and Global Warming                       259
Conclusion                                                         259
Study Questions and Exercises                                      261
Chapter 11. Food Safety                                                           265
Introduction                                                         265
The Global Burden of Foodborne Illness                               266
Categories of Food Hazards                                           267
Common Microbial Agents of Foodborne Illness                         267
Bacterial Agents                                                     268
Worms                                                                279
Viral Agents                                                         281
Other Agents                                                         283
Chemically Related Foodborne Hazards                                 285
Regulation of Food Safety                                            291
Foodborne Disease Prevention                                         294
Conclusion                                                           299
Study Questions and Exercises                                        300
Chapter 12. Solid and Liquid Wastes                                               303
Introduction                                                         303
Historical Background-Solid Waste Disposal                           303
Components of the Municipal Solid Waste Stream                       305
Solid Waste Management                                               305
Disposal of Hazardous Materials and Wastes                           311
Sewage Processing and Disposal                                       314
Animal Wastes                                                        319
Conclusion                                                           321
Study Questions and Exercises                                        322
Chapter 13. Occupational Health                                                   325
Introduction                                                         325
Background and History                                               325
Significance of the Occupational Environment for Health              329
Overview of Agents of Occupational Disease                           331
Specific Occupationally Associated Diseases and Conditions           334
Prevention of Occupational Disease                                   348
Conclusion                                                           350
Study Questions and Exercises                                        352



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Environmental health