Table of contents for Eco-exergy as sustainability / S.E. Jørgensen.


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Chapter   1    Introduction .............................................................................  1
1.1    Two basic thermodynamic concepts .......................................  1
1.2    Sustainability versus cost/benefit ..............................................  1
1.3    Pollution  abatement tools............................ ..... ...............  6
1.4    Weak and strong sustainability .......................................... .  9
1.5    The core ideas of this volume ................................... .........  10
Part A         The basic concepts of thermodynamics and the use of
thermodynamic variables as sustainability indices ............. 15
Chapter 2      You cannot escape the thermodynamic laws........................ 17
2.1    Mass and energy conservation................................... ........ 17
2.2    The second law of thermodynamics........................................ 18
2.3    Energy  policy  ................................................................ ....  22
Chapter 3      Exergy .....................................................................................  27
3.1    What is exergy?............................................... ....................  27
3.2    Eco-exergy  .................................................................. .....  30
3.3    Exergy and information ........................................ ........... . 33
3.4    Dissipative structures ........................................................ 35
3.5    How to calculate the eco-exergy for organic matter and
organisms?  .................................................... ......................  35
3.6    Why do living systems have such a high level of exergy?....... 41
3.7    Embodied energy/emergy .................................... ............ 42
3.8    The ecosystem as a biochemical reactor ............................. .. 45
3.9    Sum mary................................. ................................. ......  47
Chapter 4       Application of eco-exergy in human activities and
ecosystems ........................................................................  49
4.1     Losses and gains of eco-exergy by human activities
including  pollution........... .....................................................  49
4.2     Exergy flows in the society .....................................................  53
4.3     Formulation of a thermodynamic hypothesis for
ecosystems .................................................. ......................  54
4.4     Support for the, hypothesis ...................................................... 56
4.5     Growth and development of ecosystems...................................  60
Chapter 5       Eco-exergy as an ecosystem       health indicator......................  67
5.1     Criteria for the selection of ecological indicators for
ecosystem health assessment (EHA).......................................  67
5.2     Classification of ecosystem health indicators........................... 69
5.3     Presentation and definition of level 7 and 8 indicators-
holistic  indicators....................................................................  71
5.4     Conclusions and summary ................................... ............ 78
Part B          The use of thermodynamic indicators..............................   .   79
Chapter 6       Eco-exergy as an ecosystem health indicator for lakes........           81
6.1     Introduction ............................................................................  8 1
6.2     Determination of eco-exergy ...............................................  82
6.3     Use of observations to find the eco-exergy ...............................  85
6.4     Conclusions and summary ................................... ............  86
Chapter 7       Eco-exergy as an ecosystem health indicator for
coastal areas.......................................................................  89
7.1     Introduction........................................... ............................  89
7.2     Results of the statistical analysis...........................................  89
7.3     Discussion.................................................................... .....  91
7.4     How to calculate and interpret eco-exergy and
specific eco-exergy-an example ......................................... 96
7.5     The application of ecological indicators to assess the
ecosystem health of coastal lagoons ....................................... 97
7.6     Conclusions............................................ ...........................  99
Chapter 8       Eco-exergy as an ecosystem        health indicator for
agricultural systems .............................................................. 101
8.1     Different types of agriculture....................................................  101
8.2     Use of ecological indicators to assess the health of
agricultural system  s  ................................................................  102
8.3    Assessment of the ecosystem health of a series of
selected agricultural systems................................................... 108
8.4     Conclusions.............................................................. ..........   Il
Chapter 9      Eco-exergy losses and gains in the society........................... 113
9.1    How to set up an eco-exergy balance for a region? .................. 113
9.2    Exergy loss by the consumption of non-renewable
resources: what can we do to reduce this eco-exergy loss?....... 114
9.3    Loss by the consumption of fossil fuel ...................................  115
9.4    Eco-exergy of human products ...............................................  119
9.5    Eco-exergy change due to consumption of renewable
resources  ................. .............. .................................... .........  120
9.6    Exergy and energy consumption in the transport sector........... 123
9.7    The total global eco-exergy balance ....................................... 124
Part C         Basic properties of ecosystems and their application for
a more sustainable management of man-made and
man-controlled systems ........................................................ 127
Chapter 10     Properties of ecosystems......................................................... 129
10.1   Introduction: basic properties of ecosystems .......................... 129
10.2   The use of the 19 basic principles (rules) of
ecological engineering on agricultural systems ...................... 131
10.3   Conclusions and summary ...................................................... 134
Chapter 11     Ecological and sustainable management of
agricultural systems .............................................................. 137
11.1   Sustainable  agriculture............................................................  137
11.2   Presentation of an agricultural system based upon
sustainability  principles  .......................................................... 140
11.3   The use of sustainability indicators for the analysis of a
normal agricultural system and of an agricultural system
based  on  sustainability  ............................................................  143
11.4   The global agricultural policy ............................................... 145
11.5   Exergy consumption of agriculture........................................... 149
11.6   Agriculture in the industrialized countries versus
agriculture in the developing countries ................................... 150
11.7   Summary and conclusions ...................................................... 151
Chapter 12     Ecological and sustainable management of
industrial systems .................................................................... 153
12.1   Industrial ecology......................................................................  153
12.2   Ecological properties of industries............................................ 154
12.3   An ecological network of industries ....................................... 159
12.4   Closing remarks and conclusions............................................ 161
Chapter 13     A society based on ecological principles.............................. 163
13.1   Introduction...............................................................................  163
13.2   Recycling and reuse: green tax ............................................... 163
13.3     Unsubsidized agriculture ........................................................  167
13.4     A sustainable fishery policy is urgently needed...................... 168
13.5     Much more resources are needed for research and
education................................................................................   169
13.6     Administration, management and bureaucracy:
decentralization and individual responsibility
are  needed  ............  ....................................................................   172
13.7     Conservation of nature............................................................  174
13.8     An ecologically sound pollution abatement requires the
use of a wide spectrum      of methods......................................... 175
13.9     Energy   policy...........................................................................  176
13.10     Social welfare  .........................................................................  180
Part D           Conclusions and summary ...................................................  183
Chapter 14       Conclusions and summary ..................................................... 185
14.1    Eco-exergy as a sustainability indicator.................................... 185
14.2    The application of ecological principles to obtain a
sustainable society .................................................................. 186
14.3    Political conclusions ............................................................... 188



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Bioenergetics, Biotic communities, Sustainable development, Ecological assessment (Biology)