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1. Situating the State, Society, and Artisans in Early Modem Marwar Caste Hierarchy and Consequent Debilitation: Elitist Discourses on State Formation; Shifting the Gaze to Subordinate Castes and Early Modem Everyday Politics; On Cultural Hegemony, Autonomy, and Conscious- ness; Questions of Domination, Collaboration, Resistance, and Protest; The Sociology of Power, State Formation, and the Notion of Ulijabi: Pe- titions and Other Sources: Variety of Genres. Multiple Perspectives 2. The Rathors and the Marwar Desh 50 The Desh and the Raja; Kingship in the Eighteenth-century Context; In- formation Order; The Ecological Environment; Trade. Commerce. and the Economic Scenario 3. Artisanal Jatis, Jati Panchayats, and the State 88 Gendered Production Relations and the Artisanal World: Scriptures. Cus- tomary Laws, and Justice; Jati Panchayats and Self-governance: Collabo- rative Co-existence of the State and Artisanal Jati Panchayats; Tensions and Manipulations: The Issue of Ex-communication; Concluding Remarks 4. Village Artisans, Landed Elites, and the State 124 Blending of Crafts and Agriculture: Transformations in the Birat System and Relations of Patronage; Efforts to Establish Trade Monopolies: Exac- tions, Extortions, and Intimidation by the Dominant; Merchants, Land- lords, Debts, and Agrestic Servitude: The State and the Question of Artisanal Agency: Petitions, Migrations, and Protest; Concluding Remarks 5. City Artisans, Merchants, and Urban Administration 178 Cities and their 'Pull' for Artisans: Muhalla-living and Concept of Biradari; Urban Artisans, Merchants, and the Market: Artisanal Wage Labour and the State; Politics of Legitimation and Artisans: Concluding Remarks 6. Escalation in Stresses and Artisanal Responses 212 Enhanced Stresses in Changing Times: Shifting Readings of Wajabi and Increased Ranklings between the Raja and Runk: Rethinking Revolution- ary Responses of the Subordinate; Concluding Remarks Glossary 242 Select Bibliography 250 Index 268 Tables and Maps Tables 2.1 Merchant Households in Pargana Headquarters by Late Seventeenth Century 68 4.1 Some Important State Taxes in Eighteenth-century Marwar 140 5.1 Pavan Jat Households in Pargana Headquarters by the Late Seventeenth Century 182 Maps 2.1 Parganas and Some Important Thikanas in Eighteenth-century Marwar 52 2.2 Physical Features of Marwar 65 2.3 Famine Susceptible Regions of Marwar 67 2.4 Important Trade Routes in Eighteenth-century Marwar 69