Table of contents for Justice and rule of law in Tanzania : selected judgements and writings of Justice James L. Mwalusanya and commentaries / Helen Kijo-Bisimba and Chris Maina Peter.


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Photograph of Hon. Mr. Justice James L. Mwalusanya......................... iii
Preface - By Hon. Mr. Justice James L. Mwalusanya.......................  v
Acknowledgements......    .......................... ................................  ix
Abbreviations.......................... ............................................................... xvi
CHAPTER ONE:        Mwalusanya: An Activist Judge and the
Tanzanian  Judiciary................ ...........................  1
I. Introduction   ...... .. ...... ............................ ....................................... .  I
II. Activism in the Judiciary in General............................. ..............  2
III. Emergence of Judicial Activism in Tanzania................. ............   4
(a). One-Party Democracy and Judiciary. ................................... 4
(b). Judiciary and One Party Democracy: Throwing
Down the Towel or Standing by Justice?.......................................... 10
IV. Emergence of Bold Stars in the Judiciary......................................... 12
(a). Hon. Mr. Justice Edward Mwesiumo,....................... ....... 12
(b). Hon. Mr. Justice Nassoro Mnzavas..................................  17
(c). Hon. Mr. Justice Kahwa Lugakingira.......  .......................... 20
(d). Other Occasional Good Judgements...................................... 27
V. Hon. Mr. Justice Mwalusanya - A Class of His Own .................. 28
(a). Demystification of the Judicial Process................................ 29
(b). Areas Handled/Addressed by Justice Mwalusanya........... 29
VI. Hon. Mwalusanya: The Price of Excellency and
A ctivism , ...................... ......... ....... ..................... . ... ...  30
(a). Attacks from Colleagues and Higher Judiciary................... 31
(b). Change of the Law to Tame Justice Mwalusanya..... .......... 33
(c). Change of Administrative Rules on Places of Filing of Cases 34
(d). Silent Censorship Mwalusanya's Judgements -
Reported Internationally but Ignored Locally......................... 35
VII. Judiciary After Mwalusanya - Whither Judicial Activism?........ 35
CHAPTER TWO: The Right to Life and the Legality and the
Legitimacy of the Death Penalty................................... 37
I. Right to Life: The Mother of all Rights...................................  37
II. Right to Life and the Death Penalty............................ ................... 37
II. Right to Life in Tanzania ............................ ............. ......... 39
1. Republic v. Mbushuu @ Dominic Mnyaroje and Another, High
Court of Tanzania at Dodoma, Original Jurisdiction, Criminal
Sessions Case No. 44 of 1991, Mwalusanya, J. Reported
in  [1994] 2  LRC  335........................................................... . ........ ....... ..  40
CHAPTR THREE: The Right to Survive as a Human Being and
Freedom from Torture, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment
and  Punishm ent........................... .......... ...........................  69
I Children - Maintenance and Survival......................................... 69
II. Survival at the End of Marriage.................. ......... ............ ...... 69
III. Torture, Inhuman Treatment and Survival........................... 70
2. Chiku Lidah v. Adam Omari, High Court of Tanzania
at Singida, (PC) Civil Appeal No. 34 of 1991...................... . 72
3. Hadija Hamis v. Mose esesanjo, High Court of Tanzania
at Singida, Matrimonial Appeal No. 2 of 1992....................   81
4. Thomas Mjengi and Another v. Republic, High Court
of Tanzania at Dodoma, Criminal Appeal
N o. 28  of 1991..... .................. ............ ... ................  86
CHAPTER FOUR: Right to Work; Fair Remuneration; and Fair
Treatment of Workers .   ............................. ...... .... ............  105
1. The Right to Work and Survival.........  ...........................  105
II. The Right to Work in Tanzania................ ................ ....... 105
III. The Right to Fair Remuneration..............................................  106
5. Augustine Masatu v. Mwanza Textiles Ltd, High Court
of Tanzania at Mwanza, Civil Case No. 3 of 1986...............  107
6. Obadiah Salehe v. Dodoma Wine Company Ltd, High Court
of Tanzania at Dodoma, Civil Case No. 53 of 1.990............... 118
7. W.K. Butambala v. The Attorney General, High Court
of Tanzania at Mwanza, Miscellaneous Criminal Cause
N o. 50  of  1990.............. ..................... . .... ............ ........ ....  138
CHAPTER FIVE: Right to Own Private Property and
Freedom of Business......  ............................  .. ...... .. ... ...........150
1. Changing Concept of Property.     .......... ........ .....  150
II. Right to .Property and the Law ........................ 150
III. The Bill of Rights and Private Property.. ........................  154
IV. Freedom of Business and the Right to Exist............................  154
8. John Mwombeki Byombalirwa v. Regional Commissioner,
Kagera and Another, High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza
(In the District Registry) Miscellaneous Civil
Cause  N o. 22  of 1986... ............................................. ............  155
9. Mwanza Restaurant and Catering Association v. Mwanza
Municipal Director, High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza
Miscellaneous Civil Cause No. 3 of 1987......................... 171
10. Musseti Enterprises v. Assistant Price Commissioner,
Musoma, High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza,
Miscellaneous Civil Cause No. 22 of 1989............... ........ 194
CHAPTER SIX: The Right to Liberty: Right to Bail; Right
to Privacy; and Presumption of Innocence............................. ..............  201
I. Liberty  and  Fullness of Life ...........................................................  201
II. The Right to Bail and the Right to Liberty.................................. 201
It. Bail, Presumption of Innocence and Separation of Powers........ 203
11. Daudi s/o Pete v. The United Republic, High Court
of Tanzania in Mwanza, Miscellaneous Criminal Cause
N o. 80  of 1989......................................................... ...........  204
12. Republic v. Musuba Nyeisao and Another, High Court
of Tanzania at Mwanza, Miscellaneous Criminal
Cause  N o. 6  of 1990...............................................................   240
13. D.PP. v. Julius Kalekwa, High Court of Tanzania
at Mwanza, High Court Criminal Appeal No. 48 of 1990..... 254
CHAPTER SEVEN: Freedom of Movement............................................... 276
I. The Centrality of Freedom of Movement....................................... 276
II. Internal Deportation and Freedom of Movement........................ 276
IIL The Constitutional Base for Internal Deportation......................... 277
IV. Preventive Detention and Freedom of Movement........................ 277
V. From  Legal to Illegal Detention.................................................... . 280
14. Chumchua s/o Marwa v. Officer i/c of Musoma Prison
and Another, High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza,
Miscellaneous Criminal Cause No. 2 of 1988.......................... 282
CHAPTER EIGHT: Right to Peaceful Assembly................-...................... 298
I. Assembly and Wider Democratic Rights.......................................... 298
II Freedom of Assembly and Associate in Tanzania.........................  298
III. Freedom of Assembly under Multi-partyDemocracy.............. 299
15. Rev. Christopher Mtikila and 3 Others v. Republic,
High Court of Tanzania at Dodoma, Appellate Jurisdiction,
High Court Criminal Appeal,No. 90 of 1992......................... 300
CHAPTER NINE: Right of Access to Justice - Fair and Timely Justice.......315
I. Rule of Law and Access to Justice....................... ...... ............. 315
II. Opening Judicial Organs to all ............................................ 316
III. Accessing the Government in Litigation.................................  317
16. Peter Ng'omango v. Gerson M.K. Mwangwa and Another,
High Court of Tanzania at Dodoma, Civil Case
N o. 22  of 1992...... ................ ....................................  319
17. Gratian Leonard v. Method Benedict, High Court of
Tanzania at Mwanza, (HC) Civil Appeal No. 5 of 1990....   334
18. Paschal Makombanya Rufutu v. The D.P.P., High Court
of Tanzania at Mwanza, Miscellaneous
Civil Cause No. 3 of 1990.......................................................  356
CHAPTER TEN: Equality Before the Law: Gender and
Status D iscrim ination................ ....... .......................... ........... ............  379
I. Equality before the Law and Rule of Law.............................. 379
II Constitutional Equality in Tanzania......................................... 379
III. Equality and Discrimination on the Basis of Gender ................ 380
IV. Gender Discrimination and the International Community........ 381
"V. Gender Discrimination in Tanzania....................................... . 383
VI. Customary Law and Gender Equality................................   384
VII. Status Discrimination................................. ...... ........... 385
19. Bernado Ephrahim v. Holaria Pastory and Another,
High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza (PC) Civil Appeal
No. 70 of 1989. Reported in [19901 LRC (Const) 757............ 387
20. Magdalena Zacharia v. Daniel Zacharia, High Court
of Tanzania at Mwanza (PC) Civil Appeal No. 23 of 1989 ... 403
21. Letisia Buguma v. Thadeo Magoma and Another,
High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza, High Court
A ppeal N o. 8  of 1989.......................... ..................... .. ....... 410
22. A.A. Sisya and 35 Others v. Principal Secretary, Ministry
of Finance and Another, High Court of Tanzania at Dodoma,
Civil Case No. 5 of 1994....... ............................... ........ ...  418
CHAPTER ELEVEN: Rules of Natural Justice................................... . 432
I. What are the Rules of Natiral Justice..................................  432
II. Tanzania and Rules of Natural Justice................................. ..  432
III. Institutions of Higher Education and Other
Specialised Institutions and Natural Justice....................................  433
23. Amir Hamza Umar and 3 Others v. Minister for Local
Government, Co-operatives and Marketing, High Court of
Tanzania at Mwanza, Miscellaneous
Civil Cause No. 9  of 1989.................. ...... ......................... ....   434
24. James F. Gwagilo v. Attorney-General, High Court
of Tanzania at Dodoma, Civil Case No. 23 of 1993...............  456
CHAPTER TWELVE: Right to Legal Representation....................... 468
I. The Right to Legal Representation and Fair
H earing.... .................................................................. .....  468
IL Right to Counsel in Tanzania.......................... ...........  470
III. Right to Representation for the Indigent......................  471
25. Khasim Hamisi Manyzoele v. Republic, High Court of
Tanzania at Dodoma, Criminal Appeal No. 39 of 1990.... 473
CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Right to Legal Representation by a
Non-Lawyer - The Place of the Para-legal in the Judicial System............ 507
i. Para-Legal and Legal Representation .............. ............5..  507
II. Courts Acknowledging Para-legals.......................... ........... ......... 507
III. Para-legal and the Courts in Tanzania................. ............ 508
26. Protazi Kutaga v. Asteria Ndyamukama and Another,
High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza, (PC) Civil
Appeal No. 115 of 1983.........  ...... ....... . ........  ......  510
27. National Bank of Commerce v. Vitalis Ayemba,
High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza,
High Court Civil Case No. 37 of 1988 .............. ....... . 515
CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Rule of Law and Taking the
Law  in  Own  Hands.......................................... ..................   519
I. Failure of the State to Protect its Citizens................ ........ .......... 519
II Emergence of Vigilante Groups in Tanzania ...... ........ ...... 519
II. Accommodation of the Vigilante Groups by the State........... 520
IV. Vigilante Groups Getting out of Control ............... ............ 520
28. Ngwegwe s/o Sangija and 3 Others v. Republic,
High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza,
Criminal Appeal No. 72 of 1987......  ....... ......... ........ 523
29. Misperesi K. Maingu v. Hamisi Mtongori and 9 Others,
High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza,
Civil Case No. 16 of 1988........ .................   . 533
30. Charles Charari Maitari v. Matiko Chacha Cheti and 4 Others,
High Court of Tanzania at Mwanza (HC)
Civil Case No. 15 of 1987............... ...... ..............  538
CHAPTER FIFTEEN Conclusion - Lessons We Learn From the
Work of Hon. Mr. Justice James L. Mwalusanya.... ............................  549
ANNEXTURE ONE: Important Cases Handled by
Hon. Mr. Justice Mwalusanya........               ........................  551
ANNEXTURE TWO: A Selection of Writings of
Hon. Mr. Justice James L. Mwalusanya ..........  ......................  554
PAPER ONE: Checking the Abuse of Power in
a Democracy: The Tanzanian Experience............................  556
PAPER TWO: The Protection of Human Rights in
the Criminal Justice Proceedings - The Tanzania Experience...... 589
PAPER THREE: The Case for the Para-Legal
Officer in  Tanzania  ..... ...... .................  ...... .............   614
PAPER FOUR: The Bill of Rights and the Protection of
Human Rights: Tanzania's Court Experience.........................  624



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