Table of contents for Welding robots : technology, system issues and applications / J. Norberto Pires, Altino Loureiro, Gunnar Bolmsjo╠ł.


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1. Introduction and  Overview        ................................................................................ I
1. I  Introduction    .......................................... .   ............................................. I
1.1.1 Why Robotic Welding and a CAD Programming Interface? .............. 3
1.2 Historical Perspective ..................................................................................6
1.2.1 Welding     ........................................................ ..................................... 7
1.2.2   Robotics ..............      ......   ............................. ........................................... 13
1.3 Why   to Automate Welding? ...................................................................... 17
1.3.1 Example of an SME  Based Industrial Robotic System                     ................... .. 17
1.3.2 Are Robots Adapted to Robotic Welding? .....................................22
1.4 Objectives and Outline of the Book             ..................      .....................................23
1.5 References ..................................................................            ............................... 24
2. Welding Technology ti.........................................................................................27
2.1 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) ... ..... .. ...............  ............................ 27
2.1.1   Introduction .........           ............................................................................. 27
2.1.2   Welding Equipment ................. ..         ........................................................28
2.1.2.1 Power Sources ....................................................................... 28
2.1.2.2 Welding    Torch .......................................................................29
2.1.2.3 Non-consumable Electrodes ...............                      .................. .... ........... ..... 29
2.1.2.4 Arc Striking Techniques .....................                     ..................... ..............  30
2.1.2.5 Shielding Gas Regulator ......................              .................................. 31
2.1.3 Process Parameters ........................................                                                 31
2.1.3.1 Current ...............................................................................
2.1.3.2 Welding    Speed .................................................................... 33
2.1.3.3 Arc Length ...............................................................33
2.1.3.4 Shielding  Gases .........       ......................................................... 33
2.1.3.5 Filler Metals ...........................................................................34
2.1.3.6 Electrode Vertex Angle .................                      ...................................... 34
2.1.3.7 Cast-to-cast Variation ............................................................               34
2.1.4   Process Variants               ................................................................................ 35
2.2     Gas Metal Arc Welding  (GMAW) ............................................................36
2.2.1   Introduction ....................................................................................... 37
2.2.2   Welding Equipment ..........................................................................38
2.2.2.1 Power Source                   ...............................................................                 .....38
2.2.2.2 Electrode Feed Unit.....................................................           ............  39
.      22.2.3  Welding Torch ..........................................................................              40
.22.3   Process Parameters ............................................................................               40
2.2.3.1       Current .................................................................................                      41
2.2.3.        Voltage            ..    .      .................................................................................. 42
2.2.3.3       Welding       Speed ...............................................................42
2.2.3.4       Electrode          Extension ...............................................................                   42
2.2.3.5       Shielding          Gas.....         ..............................................................................42
2.2.3.6 Electrode Diameter ................................................................... 43
2.2.2.4     Process Variants ..........                  ......................................................................43
2.3    Laser Beam   Welding  (LBW) .....................................................................45
2.3.1 Introduction ...................................                    ..........................      ............................   5
2.3.2     Welding      Equipment ..........................................................................               47
2.3.2.1       Solid-state          Lasers.............................................                 ....................  47
2.3.2.2       Gas Lasers .......................................                    .................    .................   48
2.3.3      Process Parameters ...........................................................................49
2.3.3.1       Beam  Power and            Beam       Diameter ............................................ 50
2.3.3.2       Focus Characterization                      ...................       ....................................... 50
2.3.3.3       Travel Speed ................................................................                        ......51
2.3.3.4       Plasma  Formation     ..................................................................              1
2.3.3.5       Welding  Gases ......................         ....................    ...............................52
2.3.3.6       Absorptivity ...........................................................................52
2.3.4     Process Variants                .................................................................................             53
2.4    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) .............................................................54
2.4.1      Introduction           ....................................................................................... 55
2.4.2      Welding       Equipment ............................................................................. 56
2.4.2.1   Power Sources ...................................................................               ....     . 56
2.4.2.2   Electrodes ............................................................                           ...........58
2.4.3     Process Parameters ...........................................................................58
2.4.3.1   Welding Current and Time .....................................................             59
2.4.3.2   Welding Force ...............          ..............................        ................ 60
2.4.4     Process Variants..............                     ............................................................... 61
2.5    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) ................... .................    .................     ...............62
2.5.1 Introduction ...............................................................................                                      63
2.5.2     Welding Equipment .......................................................................... 64
2.5.3      Process Parameters ........................................................................... 65
2.5.4     Process Variants ................................................................................66
2.6    Health and     Safety      ......................................................................................67
2.7    References ................................................................................................. 68
3. Sensors for Welding  Robots............................................................................. 73
3.1 Introduction               ................................................................................................. 73
3.1    Sensors  for Technological Parameters ...................................................... 75
3.1.1 Arc Voltage...................................................................................... 75
3.1.2     Welding       Current ...............................................................................76
3.1.2.1 Hall Effect Sensor ..................................................................76
3.1.2.2  Current Shunt .........................................................................76
3.1.3    Wire  Feed       Speed ........................................................................                         76
3.2    Sensors for Geometrical Parameters ...................................... ................... 77
3.2.1 Optical Sensors ............................................................................... 78
3.2.2     Through-arc  Sensing ......................................................................... 84
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3.3    Monitoring.....................................................       ........................................ 87
3.4    Pulsed GMAW        ..............................................           ............................................   89
3.4.1     Synergic   Controlg        ..........   ...................................................................         90
3.5    Short-circuit GMAW      ..................................................................................92
3.6    Spray   MAW       ....................................................................................             .....  93
3.7    Fault Detection  Using  Monitoring ............................................................. 94
3.8    Design of a Monitoring System for Quality  Control .................................96
3.9    Monitoring System  Development-An Example .....................................99
3.9.1     Short-circuiting  GMAW      ...................................................................          99
3.9.2 Spray GMAW ...................................................................................... 100
3.10     Discussion           ...........................................................             .................................   101
3.11       References         .......................       .   ..................................................................... 102
4.   Robotic  Welding: System Issues .................................................................... 105
4. 1 Introduction                 ........................................................           .................................    105
4.1 Modeling the  Welding  Process............................................................... 106
4.1.1 Definition and     Detection of the     Process Parameters........................... 106
4.2    Control of the Welding Process .............................................................. 112
4.2.1 Knowledge Base a p..........................................           113
4.2.2      Sensors  and     Interfaces ..................................................................                    113
4.4    Programmable and  Flexible  Control Facility              ................................................ ...... 116
4.5    Application to  Robot Manipulators ......................................................... 118
4.5.1 Using RPC - Remote Procedure  Calls.............................................. 120
4.5.2     Using TCP/IP Sockets .......................................................................               123
4.6    Simple Welding Example ..       ................................................................... 131
4.7     Semi-autonomous Manufacturing Systems ................. ..........................       . 139
4.8     Chapter Final Notes.......................................................................                    ........   142
4.9     References .............................................................................................. 143
5. Robotic  Welding: Application Examples...................................................... 147
5.1    Introduction           ...............    .............................................................................            147
5.2    A Robotic Welding  System        ..................................................................... 148
5.2. 1 Overview  of the system        .................................................................. 148
5.2.2     CAD Interface................................................................................ 152
5.2.3     WeldPanel...................................................................................... 157
5.2.4     WeldAdjust .................................................................................... 159
5.2.5     File  Explorer .......................................................................                    ....    .. 159
5.2.6 Robot Control Panel and RPC Server to Receive Events ............... 159
5 .3  Test  Cases  .......... .......................................................... ................. 160
5.3.1 Test Case 1 - Multi-layer Welding .......................... .................... 161
5.3.2 Test Case 2 - Multiple Welding Paths..................... ...................... 161
5.4  Discussion  ....................................................................................... ......  162
5.4.1 IO and Memory Remote Access ...................       ........ ..................... 163
5.4.2 Software Components.................                        ...................... 167
5.4.3 CAD Interface ................................................................................ 167
5.4.3.1 Parameterization Approach ........................ ..................... ........ . 168
5.4.3.2 Code Generation Approach ............................................... . 173
5.4.4 Low-level Interfaces for Sensors .................................................. 174
5.5  References  .......................................................... ..  ...................... 175
6. What's Next?.........................................................................   ...................... 177



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Welding Automation, Robots, Industrial