Table of contents for Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei.


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1    General Introduction      1
1.1   Introduction  1
1.2   Gaseous Nebulae   1
1.3   Observational Material  3
1.4   Physical Ideas  7
1.5   Diffuse Nebulae   8
1.6   Planetary Nebulae  10
1.7   Nova and Supernova Remnants   11
1.8   Active Galactic Nuclei  12
1.9   Star Formation in Galaxies  13
2    Photoionization Equilibrium       17
2.1   Introduction   17
2.2    Photoionization and Recombination of Hydrogen  19
2.3    Photoionization of a Pure Hydrogen Nebula  23
2.4    Photoionization of a Nebula Containing Hydrogen and Helium  27
2.5    Photoionization of He+ to He++  33
2.6    Further Iterations of the Ionization Structure  35
2.7    Photoionization of Heavy Elements  35
3    Thermal Equilibrium       45
3.1   Introduction  45
3.2   Energy Input by Photoionization  45
3.3   Energy Loss by Recombination  47
3.4   Energy Loss by Free-Free Radiation  49
3.5    Energy Loss by Collisionally Excited Line Radiation  49
3.6    Energy Loss by Collisionally Excited Line Radiation of H  60
3.7    Resulting Thermal Equilibrium  60
4    Calculation of Emitted Spectrum       67
4.1   Introduction   67
4.2    Optical Recombination Lines  68
4.3    Optical Continuum Radiation  77
4.4    Radio-Frequency Continuum and Line Radiation  88
4.5    Radiative Transfer Effects in H I  92
4.6    Radiative Transfer Effects in He I  97
4.7    The Bowen Resonance-Fluorescence Mechanisms for O III and O I  99
4.8    Collisional Excitation in He I  100
5    Comparison of Theory with Observations         107
5.1   Introduction   107
5.2    Temperature Measurements from Emission Lines  108
5.3   Temperature Determinations from Optical Continuum
Measurements    114
5.4    Temperature Determinations from Radio-Continuum Measurements  116
5.5    Temperature Determinations from Radio and UV Absorption Lines  120
5.6    Electron Densities from Emission Lines  121
5.7    Electron Temperatures and Densities from Infrared Emission Lines  127
5.8    Electron Temperatures and Densities from Radio Recombination
Lines    127
5.9    Filling and Covering Factors  133
5.10   Ionizing Radiation from Stars  135
5.11   Abundances of the Elements in Nebulae  142
5.12   Calculations of the Structure of Model Nebulae  148
6    Internal Dynamics of Gaseous Nebulae         157
6.1   Introduction   157
6.2    Hydrodynamic Equations of Motion  158
6.3    Free Expansion into a Vacuum  161
6.4    Shocks    162
6.5   Ionization Fronts and Expanding H+ Regions  164
6.6    Magnetic Fields  169
6.7    Stellar Winds  170
7    Interstellar Dust    177
7.1   Introduction   177
7.2   Interstellar Extinction  177
7.3   Dust within H II Regions  184
7.4   Infrared Thermal Emission  190
7.5    Formation and Destruction of Dust Particles  194
7.6    Grain Opacities  195
7.7   Effects of Grains on Surrounding Gas  197
7.8    Dynamical Effects of Dust in Nebulae  200
8    Infrared Radiation and Molecules       207
8.1   Introduction   207
8.2   The Structure of a PDR  207
8.3   The H2 Molecule    211
8.4   The CO Molecule    214
8.5   Comparison with Observations  216
8.6   Molecules Around H II Regions  221
9    H II Regions in the Galactic Context      225
9.1   Introduction   225
9.2    Distribution of H II Regions in Other Galaxies  225
9.3    Distribution of H II Regions in Our Galaxy  227
9.4    Stars in H II Regions  230
9.5    Abundances of the Elements  232
9.6    Newly Formed Stars in H II Regions  240
9.7    Starburst Galaxies  242
10     Planetary Nebulae       247
10.1  Introduction   247
10.2  Distance Determinations  247
10.3  Space Distribution and Kinematics of Planetary Nebulae  251
10.4  The Origin of Planetary Nebulae and the Evolution of Their Central
Stars   253
10.5  The Expansion of Planetary Nebulae  258
10.6  Morphology and Composition   261
10.7  Planetary Nebulae with Extreme Abundances of the Elements  264
10.8  Molecules in Planetary Nebulae  266
10.9  Mass Return from Planetary Nebulae  268
10.10  Planetary Nebulae in Other Galaxies  269
S1     Heavy Elements and High-Energy Effects          277
11.1  Introduction   277
11.2  Physical Processes Involving Bound Electrons  277
11.3  Physical Processes at Still Higher Energies  283
11.4  Physical Conditions from X-ray Spectroscopy  286
11.5  Collisional Excitation of Ho  290
12     Nova and Supernova Remnants           295
12.1  Introduction   295
12.2  Nova Shells   295
12.3  The Crab Nebula    301
12.4  The Cygnus Loop    307
12.5  Cas A     314
12.6  Other Supernova Remnants   316
12.7  Spectroscopic Differences Between Shock-Heated and Photoionized
Regions    316
12.8   r Car   317
13     Active Galactic Nuclei-Diagnostics and Physics         325
13.1  Introduction   325
13.2  Historical Sketch  326
13.3  Observational Classification of AGNs  328
13.4  Densities and Temperatures in the Narrow-Line Gas  336
13.5  Photoionization   340
13.6  Broad-Line Region    345
14     Active Galactic Nuclei-Results        353
14.1  Introduction   353
14.2  Energy Source    353
14.3  Narrow-Line Region    356
14.4  LINERs     361
14.5  Broad-Line Region  363
14.6  Dust in AGNs   372
14.7  Internal Velocity Field  374
14.8  Physical Picture  382
APPENDIX 1   Measures of Light   395
A1.1  Specific Intensity I  395
A1.2  Flux F   396
A1.3  Mean Intensity J  397
A1.4  Energy Density and Radiation Pressure  397
A1.5  Emittance   398
A1.6  Surface Brightness S  399
A1.7  Emissivity and Observed Quantities  399
APPENDIX 2 Milne Relation Between Capture and Photoionization Cross
Sections    401
APPENDIX 3   Emission Lines of Neutral Atoms   405
APPENDIX 4   Nebular Quantum Mechanics      407
APPENDIX 5   Atomic Data for Heavy Element Ionization Balance   423
APPENDIX 6   Quantum Mechanics of Molecules     433
Glossary of Physical Symbols  437
Glossary of Telescope and Instrument Acronyms  443
Index   445



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Nebulae, Galactic nuclei, Astrophysics