Table of contents for Reaping the benefits of genomic and proteomic research : intellectual property rights, innovation, and public health / Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, Committee on Science, Technology, and Law Policy and Global Affairs, National Research Council of the National Academies ; Stephen A. Merrill and Anne-Marie Mazza, editors.


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1   INTRODUCTION                                                  19
The Push to Patent, 21
Science and Commerce, 24
Patent Issues, 26
Secrecy versus Openness, 27
The Illusory Experimental Use Exemption, 28
Charge to the Committee, 29
Organization of the Report, 31
2   GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS, AND THE CHANGING
RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT                                          32
The Importance of DNA Sequence, 33
The Human Genome Project, 34
Human Genetic Variation, 36
What are Genomics and Proteomics?, 38
The Importance of Protein Structure, 41
Changing Scientific and Clinical Paradigms, 42
Intellectual Property and Commercialization, 43
Scientific Norms and Evolving Science Policies, 49
Summary, 69
3   THE U.S. PATENT SYSTEM, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND
THE COURTS                                                   70
Fields of Activity, 70
Applicable Law, 75
Conclusions, 99
4   TRENDS IN THE PATENTING AND LICENSING OF
GENOMIC AND PROTEIN INVENTIONS AND
THEIR IMPACT ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH                         100
Trends in Patenting Genomic and Protein Inventions, 101
Trends in University Licensing of Genomic and Proteomic
Inventions, 116
Effects of Intellectual Property Practices on Research, 119
Sharing Research Materials, 128
Conclusion, 132
5   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                             133
Overall Conclusions, 134
Best Practices and Norms for the Scientific Community and
Federal Research Sponsors, 135
Adapting the Patent System to the Developing Fields of Genomics
and Proteomics, 140
Facilitate Research Access to Patented Inventions Through
Licensing and Shielding from Liability for Infringement, 144



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Genomics United States Patents, Proteomics United States Patents, Intellectual property United States