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I Introduction: Studying Politics I What is Politics? I Political Science 13 Part I Politics in Context 21 2 The World of Ideas: Political Ideology 23 Ideology and the Western Tradition 25 Liberalism 26 Socialism 35 Conservatism 39 A Changing Climate 42 Feminism 43 Environmentalism 47 A Third Way? 53 An End of Ideology? 55 3 The Constitution: the Unwritten and the Unknowable 60 Seeking the Constitution 60 Limiting Government 68 Protecting Individual Rights 73 A Written Constitution? 79 Unwritten and Unknowable? 82 4 The Global Context: This Sceptred Isle 87 Britain Entering the Global Stage 88 Reconstructing World Capitalism 90 The Global Economy Today 93 Globalized Violence 98 Globalized Governance: the Missing Dimension? 102 Britain and the World: Three Spheres of Influence 106 Globalization in Question 110 5 Britain in Europe: Awkward Partners? 118 The Entry Process 119 The Integration Process 120 An Anatomy of the EU 124 The Budget 135 Europe as a Domestic Issue 137 What Next? 140 6 A Disunited Kingdom: Territorial Politics 148 Unity and Devolution 149 Ireland: a Terrible Beauty 156 Territorial Politics in the UK 167 7 The Social Context: Our Divided Society 174 Political Culture 174 Classes Apart 177 The Monstrous Regiment: Sexism in British Society 187 Race and Politics 191 Covering the Cracks 198 Part II Mobilizing the Demos 203 8 Mind Politics: What We Think 205 Political Socialization 206 The Press 212 Broadcasting 221 The 'New Media' 227 Mind Politics 229 9 The Electoral System: Parsimonious Democracy 234 Representative Democracy 234 Economizing with Democracy: Evolution of the Electoral System 239 Electoral Behaviour 245 Influencing Voters: Politicians and the Election Campaign 257 The British Electoral System: Disproportional Representation? 262 A Crisis of Legitimacy? 273 10 The Politics of Power: a Life History of the Party System 277 Genesis 279 Challenge to the Established Order: the Rise of the Labour Party 281 War and the Inter-war Era 283 The Era of Consensus: the End of Ideology? 287 The Consensus Cracked: the 1970s 291 The Thatcher Era: Fractured Consensus or New Centre? 292 The Major Years: Things Fall Apart 295 New Labour, New Consensus 296 Evaluating Two-party Democracy 307 I I nside the Parties: Masses, Leaders and Powers Behind Thrones 312 Anatomy of the Mass Party 312 Inside the Parties: Tweedledum and Tweedledee? 321 Who Pays the Piper? 334 Feathers and Favours 338 Masses, Leaders and Powers Behind Thrones 341 Part 111 Government at the Centre 345 12 Pomp and Circumstance: the Living Dead of the Constitution 347 The Monarchy 350 The House of Lords 359 The House of Commons 367 13 Parliament: Not to Reason Why 386 The Parliamentary Parties: Sustaining Government 387 Making Laws 392 Debates in Parliament 398 Scrutiny of the Executive 401 Reporting Parliament: the Fourth Estate 407 From Golden Age to Golden Sunset? 410 14 The Heart of Government: of Cabinets and Kings 417 An Anatomy of Cabinet Government 419 The Prime Minister: Elective Dictatorship? 436 A Monarchical Culture? 453 15 The Village of Whitehall: of Ministers and Mandarins 459 An Anatomy of a Bureaucracy 459 The Culture of Whitehall 466 Secrets of Success 472 Power in Whitehall: Obedient Servants? 481 Managing the Mandarins: Reinventing Government? 488 Plus pa Change: Room at the Top 490 16 Getting and Spending: the Politics of Public Expenditure 496 The Nature of Public Expenditure 496 Paying for the State 502 Managing Capitalism 511 Public Expenditure and Long-term Economic Decline 520 17 The Politics of Influence: Who Gets What, When, How 528 The Group Approach 528 Explaining Group Politics 537 Beyond the Group Approach 551 Who Gets the Loot? 557 PartIV The Outer Reaches of the Statet Worlds Beyond Whitehall 563 18 Arm's-length Administration: Quasi-autonomy, Quasi-democracy 565 Introducing the Quango 565 Sick of Democracy: the National Health Service 568 Nationalizing Industry 571 Privatization: the Full Circle 574 Regulating the Natural Monopolies 581 Quangos in Politics 586 19 Local Government: the Grass Roots of Democracy 593 Evolution 594 What Does Local Government Do? 600 The Wider World of Local Governance 602 The Local Political Environment 605 Management and Leadership: the Dilemma of Local Democracy 612 Finance 617 Local Government in a Centralist State 621 Local Democracy in Crisis 624 20 Justice and Politics: Trials and Errors 630 The Legal System 631 The Dramatis Personae 635 Questions of Impartiality 640 Judges and Politics 646 Administrative Justice 651 Law and Politics 658 21 The Coercive State: the Politics of Law and Order 663 Culture and the Policing Function 666 Trends in Modern Policing 675 Quis Custodiet ipsos Custodes?: Who Guards the Guards? 684 Beyond the Blue Horizon 686 The Coercive State and the Community 694 22 Thinking Synoptically 700