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Part 1: Refugees and Reintegration of Returnees 15 1 No Solutions in Sight: The Problem of Protracted Refugee Situations in Africa Jeff Crisp 17 Introduction 17 Africa's long-term refugees 17 Causes of protracted refugee situations 18 Characteristics of protracted refugee situations in Africa 22 The human consequences 30 Survival strategies 36 Responding to protracted refugee situations 42 2 Coping with Displacement: Social Networking among Urban Refugees in an East African Context Roos Willems 53 Introduction 53 Research setting and sample population 55 Fending for oneself 57 Social networks 59 Ways of meeting alters and support received 62 Supportive ties and homophilous relationships 64 Policy reflections and recommendations 69 3 The Uncertainties of the Child Soldier Experience and Subsequent Reintegration into Civil Society Art Hansen 78 Introduction 78 The rights of children in armed conflict 81 How many children are soldiers? 83 Risk and uncertainty 84 The education of children in civil and military societies 86 Demobilization and reintegration 94 Three programmatic choices 101 Uncertain reception in the community 107 Conclusion 108 4 Belonging, Displacement, and Repatriation of Refugees: Reflections on the Experiences of Eritrean Returnees Gaim Kibreab 116 Introduction 116 Statement of the problem 116 Territorial belonging in nationalist movements 120 Belonging and liberal theory 123 Local peoples' perspectives on territorial belonging 128 Repatriation of refugees and belonging 133 The ambiguous meaning of home: The experience of Eritrean returnees from Sudan 140 Repatriation of Eritrean refugees: Donor responses, risks, opportunities and coping strategies 143 Eritrean returnees' choice of destination 148 Exile, social change, development of co-operative networks and choice of destination 151 Conclusion 155 5 Returnees in Their Homelands: Land Problems in Rwanda after the Civil War Shin'ichi Takeuchi and Jean Marara 162 Introduction 162 Rwandan political change and refugees 164 Research method and research sites 167 Division of land between the two sets of 'returnees': The case of Rukara 174 Increase of land disputes: The case of Kibingo 179 Land problems and local authority 182 Concluding remarks 184 Part 2: Development- and Conservation-Induced Displacement 193 6 Concept and Method: Applying the IRR Model in Africa to Resettlement and Poverty Michael M. Cernea 195 Introduction 195 I. Africa's accelerating development and displacements 199 II. The impoverishment risks and reconstruction model 20j III. Risk-oriented resettlement research in Africa 205 IV. Sector specificities: Displacement by the mining industry 207 V. Urban resettlement: Can risk analysis highlight successes? 212 VI. Personal and common property losses in displacement 217 VII. Poverty risks to hosts: Population transfers in Ethiopia 219 VIII. War-caused displacements and the IRR model 220 IX. Displacements from African parks: The poverty argument for changing park-creation policies 231 X. Major dams: Scudder's IRR analysis of displacement's impoverishing effects 23S XI. Brief conclusions 230 7 Some Socio-Economic Risks and Opportunities Relating to Dam- Induced Resettlement in Africa Chris de Wet 259 Introduction: A brief overview of dam-induced resettlement in Africa 259 A framework for locating the sources of risks and opportunities relating to dam-induced resettlement in Africa 260 Some specific risks and opportunities operating in the context of dam-induced resettlement in Africa 263 Conclusion: Catering for complexity by keeping options open for as long as possible 277 8 The Environmental Risks of Conservation Related Displacements in Central Africa Kai Schmidt-Soltau 282 Introduction 282 Method and case study design 283 Impoverishment through biodiversity conservation 289 Conclusion/Recommendation 302 Part 3: Implications of In-migration for Host Populations 310 9 Multiple Socio-Economic Relationships Improvised between the Turkana and Refugees in Kakuma Area, Northwestern Kenya Itaru Ohta 31$ Introduction 31$ Background 31( Multiple relationships between the Turkana and refugees 323 Concluding remarks 331 10 Multidimensional Impact of Refugees and Settlers in the Gambela Region, Western Ethiopia Eisei Kurimoto 338 Introduction 338 Encroachment of socialist policies 341 Resettlement program 342 Civil war in Sudan and the influx of refugees 343 Impact of settlers and refugees 345 Aftermath: Beginning of ethnicized conflict 352 Discussion 354 11 Promises and Predicaments of Resettlement in Ethiopia Yntiso D. Gebre 359 Introduction 359 Overview of the Ethiopian resettlement 360 Resettlement-induced crises 362 Conflict and inter-ethnic relations 368 The present resettlement 375 Resettlement contrast 376 Is resettlement a viable option? 377