Table of contents for MEMS/MOEMS packaging : concepts, designs, metarials, and processes / Ken Gilleo.


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Chapter 1. Engineering Fundamentals of MEMS and MOEMS
Electronic Packaging                                             1
1.1 The Package as the Vital Bridge                          2
1.2 Packaging Challenges                                     3
1.3 Multiple Functions                                       7
1.3.1 Protection                                         7
1.3.2 Connectivity                                       8
1.3.3 Compatibility; chip-to-package                    11
1.3.4 Compatibility; package-to-printed circuits        13
1.3.5 Routing                                           14
1.3.6 Electronic routing                                15
1.3.7 Materials routing                                 15
1.3.8 Mechanical stress control                         16
1.3.9 Thermal management                                17
1.3.10 Assembly simplification                           17
1.3.11 Performance enhancement                          18
1.3.12 Testability and burn-In                           18
1.3.13 Removability and reworkability                   18
1.3.14 Standardization                                  19
1.4 Package Types                                           19
1.4.1 Fully hermetic packages                           19
1.4.2 Nonhermetic plastic                               23
1.4.3 Overmoldlng capped devices                        25
1.4.4 Near-hermetic package-a new class                 26
1.5 Reliability and Qualification                           27
1.6 Summary                                                 28
Chapter 2. Principles, Materials, and Fabrication of MEMS and
MOEMS Devices                                                   29
2.1 Definitions and Classifications                         31
2.2 Basic Principles                                        33
2.3 Sensing                                                  34
2.4 MEMS Sensor Principles                                  35
2.4.1 Inertial (motion) sensors                         35
2.4.2 Pressure sensors                                  37
2.4.3 Chemical sensors                                  38
2.5 Motion Actuation                                        39
2.6 MEMS "Engines"                                          40
2.6.1 Electrostatic/capacitance                         40
2.6.2 Electromagnetic actuators                         42
2.6.3 BImorphic actuators                               42
2.6.4 Piezoelectric actuators                           43
2.6.5 Other actuators                                   43
2.7 CAD Structure Library; Building Blocks                  44
2.7.1 Device materials                                  44
2.7.2 Fabrication methods and strategies                45
2.8 MEMS Devices                                            46
2.8.1 Sensors                                           47
2.8.2 Controllers                                       48
2.9 Optlcal-MEMS; MOEMS                                     49
2.10 Intelligent MEMS                                        49
2.11 MEMS Applications                                       50
2.11.1 MEMS sensors; endless applications                50
2.12 MOEMS Devices-MEMS Plus Light                           58
2.12.1 Light control principles                         58
2.12.2 Applications for optical MEMS (MOEMS)             59
2.13 Summary                                                 63
Chapter 3. MEMS and MOEMS Packaging Challenges
and Strategies                                                  65
3.1 Product-Specific Character of MEMS Packaging            65
3.2 MEMS General Packaging Requirements                     66
3.2.1 Free space (gas, vacuum, or fluid)                66
3.2.2 Free space (fluid)                                69
3.2.3 Low contamination                                 70
3.2.4 Minimal stress                                    71
3.2.5 Temperature limitations                           72
3.2.6 In-package environmental control                  73
3.2.7 Selective access to outside                       74
3.2.8 Mechanical shock limits                           75
3.2.9 Stiction                                          76
3.2.10 RF shielding                                      77
3.2.11 Fluidlcs management                               77
3.2.12 High-vacuum enclosures                            79
3.2.13 Device as the package                             79
3.2.14 Cost                                             79
3.3 Hermeticity; Levels, Evaluation Methods, and Requirements;
Perceived versus Actual                                  80
3.4 Cost versus Performance Trade-offs                      82
3.5 Emergence of Low-Cost Near-Hermetic Packaging           82
3.5.1 Definition and description                        82
3.5.2 Material choices                                  83
3.5.3 Interconnect schemes                              84
3.6 Manufacturing Process Comparisons                      84
3.6.1 Metal packages                                   84
3.6.2 Ceramic packages                                 86
3.6.3 Plastic packages: plastic versus ceramic         90
3.6.4 Chip assembly in plastic packages               103
3.6.5 Lid sealing                                     103
3.6.6 Package barrier Issues                          105
3.6.7 Hermetlcity testing of injection molded packages  106
3.6.8 Package enhancement                             108
3.6.9 Productivity using strips and arrays            110
3.6.10 Acceptance of NHP molded package technology     111
3.6.11 Status of NHP and MEMS-speclfic packaging       111
3.7 The Packaging MOEMS (Optical-MEMS)-Additional Requirements  112
3.7.1 Windows and ports                               112
3.7.2 Maintaining optical clarity                     115
3.7.3 Dimensional stability                           115
3.7.4 Thermal management                              115
3.7.5 In-package dynamic alignment                    116
3.8 Packages for Materials Handling                        116
3.8.1 Design concepts                                 117
3.8.2 Fluidic systems                                 117
3.8.3 Gas/airborne agent analyzers                    117
3.8.4 Nanoscale particles and MEMS                    118
3.8.5 Selectivity for ports                           118
3.9 NHP Beyond MEMS                                        118
Chapter 4. MEMS Packaging Processes                           121
4.1 Release Step                                           123
4.1.1 Stiction and cleaning                           125
4.2 Singulation; Sawing and Protection                     126
4.3 Capping Approaches                                     128
4.3.1 Dielectric caps                                 129
4.3.2 Caps with first-level Interconnects             130
4.3.3 Caps with second-level Interconnects            131
4.4 Die Attach                                             133
4.5 Wire Bonding                                           133
4.6 Flip Chip Methods                                      133
4.7 Tape Automated Bonding                                 136
4.8 Selective Underfill and Encapsulation                  139
4.9 Lid Sealing                                            139
4.9.1 Thermal adhesive application                    140
4.9.2 UV curing of sealants                           141
4.9.3 Laser sealing                                   142
4.9.4 Ultrasonic sealing                              144
4.9.5 Direct heat bonding                             145
4.9.6 RF sealing/welding                              145
4.9.7 Electric welding                                146
4.9.8 Mechanical locking                              146
4.9.9 Soldering                                       146
4.9.10 Brazing                                         146
4.9.11 Hinged-to-package lids                          147
4.10 Antistiction Processes                                 148
4.11 In-Process Handling                                    151
4.12 Applying In-Package Additives                          151
4.12.1 Getters application processes                    151
4.12.2 Lubricant application                            152
4.13 Equipment                                              152
4.14 Testing                                                152
4.15 Reliability                                            152
4.15.1 Contamination effects                            153
4.16 Selecting the Right MEMS/MOEMS Package and Materials   154
4.16.1 The process cost overkill                        154
4.17 Conclusions and Summary                                155
Chapter 5. MEMS Packaging Materials                            159
5.1 The Process Determines the Materials                   159
5.1.1 Electrically conductive materials-Interconnects  160
5.1.2 Surface finishes for metals                      162
5.1.3 Enclosure materials                              163
5.1.4 Organic plastics and their benefits              164
5.1.5 Epoxy limitations                                167
5.1.6 Metals versus ceramics versus plastics           168
5.2 Joining Materials                                      171
5.3 Assembly Issues and Material Solutions                  172
5.3.1 Protection during singulation                    172
5.3.2 Die attach adhesives                             173
5.3.3 Lid seal materials                               174
5.4 In-Package Additives                                   174
5.4.1 Getters                                          175
5.4.2 Humidity control agents                          177
5.4.3 Antistiction agents                              178
5.4.4 Lubrlcants/antlwear agents                       179
5.5 Conclusions                                             181
Chapter 6. From MEMS and MOEMS to Nanotechnology               183
6.1 Definitions Are Important                               186
6.2 Combining Nano and MEMS                                 189
6.2.1 Nanomaterials added to MEMS and MOEMS devices    189
6.2.2 MEMS to handle nanomaterials                     190
6.2.3 Nanocomponents for MEMS                          190
6.2.4 Nanomeasurement                                  191
6.2.5 Nanodevlces                                      192
6.2.6 Nanoelectronlcs devices                          193
6.2.7 Nanoelectronics plus MEM                         198
6.2.8 Nano enhanced packaging                          198
6.3 Packaging Nano                                          200
6.4 Summary, Conclusions, and the Future                   201



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Microelectronic packaging, Microelectromechanical systems, Optoelectronic devices