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1 Introduction: Definition, Brief History, and Taxonomy of Individual Differences 1 Definition 4 Brief History of Individual Difference Research 5 Individual Differences in Second Language Studies 6 Taxonomy of Individual Differences and the Structure of this Book 7 2 Personality, Temperament, and Mood 10 Definitions 11 Different Approaches to the Study of Personality 12 Personality and Learning 20 Personality and Language Learning and Use 24 Conclusion 29 3 Language Aptitude 31 Basic Conceptual Issues 32 Language Aptitude Research: From the Beginnings to the 1990s 34 Traditional Issues in Language Aptitude Research 43 New Research Directions and Perspectives 50 Conclusion 63 4 Motivation and 'Self-Motivation' 65 Three Phases of L2 Motivation Research 66 New Conceptual Issues 88 Reframing L2 Motivation as Part of the Self-System 93 L2 Motivation and SLA Research 109 Educational Implications: Devising Motivational Strategies 111 Conclusion 118 5 Learning Styles and Cognitive Styles 120 What Are Learning Styles? 121 Cognitive Styles 125 Kolb's Model of Learning Styles 129 Assessing Cognitive and Learning Styles 131 Cognitive and Learning Styles in L2 Studies 136 Practical Implications 155 Conclusion 160 6 Language Learning Strategies and Student Self- Regulation 162 Do Learning Strategies Exist? 163 Learning Strategies in L2 Studies 166 Learning Strategies and Student Self-Regulation in Educational Psychology 188 Conclusion 195 7 Other Learner Characteristics 197 Anxiety 198 Creativity 202 Willingness to Communicate 207 Self-Esteem 211 Learner Beliefs 214