Table of contents for Cumans and Tatars : oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185-1365 / István Vásáry.

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1  Introduction                                                          i
Remarks oh the sources                                              x
Cumans a0d Tatars                                                  4
2   Cumans and the Second Bulgarian Empire                              13
The antecedents and outbreak of the liberation movement            13
Bulgars, Vlakhs and Cumans before 1185                             17
Ethnic names and ethnic realities in the sources of the Second Bulgarian
Empire                                                           22
Bulgaria, Vlakhia and Cumania in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries  27
Origins and possible Cuman affiliations of the Asen dynasty        33
Peter and Asen versus Isaakios and Alexios Angeloi: the first phase of the
Cumano-Vlakho-Bulgarian league's fight against Byzantium, 1186-1197  42
Kaloyan and his Cumans against Byzantium and the Latins           47
The Cumans' role in the restoration of Bulgaria                    54
3  Cumans in the Balkans before the Tatar conquest, 1241                57
Cumans during the reign of Boril, 1207-1218                        57
Cumans during the reign of Ivan Asen II until 1237                 61
Two waves of Cuman immigration to Bulgaria and the Latin Empire, 1237,
1241                                                             63
Cumans in the service of John Batatzes and Theodoros II, xz4t-x256  67
4   The first period of Tatar influence in the Balkans, 1242-1282       69
The Tatar conquest in the Balkans                                  69
Prince Nogay                                                       71
The Tatars release 'Izzaddin in Thrace, 1264                       72
Nogay's marriage to a Byzantine princess, 1272                     79
The Tatars' role in the struggle for the Bulgarian throne, 1277-z180  79
Tatars invited to punish Sebastokrator loannes ofThessaly, Iz82    84
5  The heyday of Tatar influence in the Balkans, 1280-1301                86
George Terter I (1280-1292) and Nogay                               86
Nogay's ulus becomes independent                                     88
(eke's emergence as khan                                             91
(eke and Teodor Svetoslav in Bulgaria                               94
The final disappearance of the Nogayids                              97
6   Cumans and Tatars on the Serbian scene                                99
Cumans at Gacko, 1276                                               99
Cumans in Zia                                                       100
Tatars at the Drim, 1282                                            lox
Cumans and Tatars in the battles at Branikevo, 1284                Io2
Silman's Tatars against the Serbs in Vidin, 1290-1300               107
Stefan Urol as a Tatar hostage                                      io8
Tatar and Yas troops on Mount Athos, 1307-1311                      Io8
Tatar and Yas troops in Milutin's service, 1311-1314               1no
Tatars and Yas in the battle ofVelbuZd, 1330                        no
7 Cumans in Byzantine service after the Tatar conquest,
1242-1333                                                             114
The Cumans in the wars of Theodoros II, Michael VIII and Andronikos II  114
The Cumans in the struggles for the throne of the two emperors
Andronikos, 1320-1328                                             II8
A Byzantine adventurer of Cuman extraction: Syrgiannes              120
8 The Tatars fade away from Bulgaria and Byzantium,
I320-1354                                                            122
Tatar raids, 1320-1321                                              122
Tatar incursions of 1323 and a new half-Cuman Bulgarian tsar        123
The Tatars in the Bulgarian and Byzantine events of 1328-1333       128
The last appearances of the Tatars in Byzantium, 1337, 1341         131
9 The emergence of two Romanian principalities in Cumania,
1330,1364                                                             134
Cumans and Tatars in Romanian history                               134
From Cumania via Tartaria to Wallachia and Moldavia                 137
Cumania and Severin after 1242                                      143
Basarab and the emergence of Wallachia, 1330                       149
Moldavia casts aside Tatar and Hungarian tutelage, 1359-1364        155
Tatar contol over the towns of the Danube and Dniester delta       160
Conclusion                                                           166
Appendix I: List ofgeographical names                                     168
Appendix 2: Chronological table ofdynasties                               171
Appendix 3: Maps                                                          172
1 The Balkans and adjacent territories                              272
2  The northwestern Balkanic lands                                  173
3 The northeastern Balkanic lands                                   174
4  The central and southern Balkanic lands                          175
List ofabbreviations                                                     176
Bibliography                                                             197
Index                                                                    217

Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Kipchak (Turkic people) Balkan Peninsula, Tatars Balkan Peninsula, Balkan Peninsula Civilization