Table of contents for The basics of sociology / Kathy S. Stolley.


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Figures and Tables                                                  xiii
Sociology Timeline of Selected Events and Influential Publications   xv
Chapter 1: Introduction                                               1
What Sociology Offers                                       2
History of Sociology                                        4
Sociologists in Society                                     7
The Sociological Imagination                                8
Sociology as an Academic Discipline                         9
Sociology in a Changing World                              12
Biographies                                                13
Auguste Comte                                            13
Anthony Giddens                                          14
Abu ZaidAbdal Rahman Ibn Khaldun                         14
Harriet Martineau                                        15
C. Wright Mills                                          16
Albion Small                                             16
Ida B. Wells-Barnett                                     17
Careers in Sociology                                       18
Additional Resources                                       19
Chapter 2: Sociological Theory                                       21
Sociological Paradigms                                     21
Major Sociological Perspectives                            22
Structural-Functionalism                                 23
Social-Conflict Theory                                   25
Symbolic Interactionism                                  27
Applying the Paradigms                                     29
Structural-Functionalist Perspective on Health Care      30
Social-Conflict Perspective on Health Care               30



Symbolic-Interactionist Perspective on Health Care       31
Biographies                                                32
Jessie Bernard                                           33
Patricia Hill Collins                                    33
Niklas Luhmann                                           33
Karl Marx                                                34
Robert K. Merton                                         35
Talcott Parsons                                         .36
Herbert Spencer                                          37
Max Weber                                                37
Careers in Sociology                                       39
Additional Resources                                       39
Chapter 3: Culture and Society                                       41
Culture                                                    41
Types of Culture                                         42
Society                                                    43
Social Structure                                           43
Status                                                   44
Roles                                                    45
Aspects of Culture                                       45
Values                                                45
Norms                                                 46
Symbols                                               47
Languages                                             48
Diversity                                                  49
Sociobiology                                               51
Globalization and the Internet                             51
Biographies                                                53
Napoleon Chagnon                                         53
Marvin Harris                                            54
Marshall McLuhan                                         54
William Graham Sumner                                    55
Benjamin Lee Whorf                                       56
Edward 0. Wilson                                         56
Careers in Sociology                                       57
Additional Resources                                       58
Chapter 4: Socialization and Social Interaction                      61
Theories of Socialization                                  61
The Looking-Glass Self                                   62
The I and Me                                             63
Personality and Social Development                       64
The Socialization Process                                  66
Total Institutions and Resocialization                     68
Socialization and Social Interaction                       69
Dramaturgy                                               70
Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis               71
Globalization and the Internet                             72



Biographies                                                 73
Peter Berger                                              73
Charles Horton Cooley                                     74
Sigmund Freud                                             75
Harold Garfinkel                                          76
Erving Goffman                                            76
George Herbert Mead                                       77
William I. Thomas                                         78
Careers in Sociology                                        79
Additional Resources                                        80
Chapter 5: Social Groups and Organizations                            83
Social Groups                                               83
Reference Groups                                          85
Group Size                                                85
Networks                                                    86
Group Dynamics                                              86
Group Formation                                           87
Leadership                                                88
Power                                                     88
Conformity                                                89
Obedience                                              90
Group Decision Making                                  91
Institutions and Conformity                            92
Formal Organizations                                        93
Bureaucracy                                               94
Oligarchy                                                 96
The McDonaldization of Society                              96
Globalization and the Internet                              98
Biographies                                                 99
Peter M. Blau                                             99
George Caspar Homans                                     100
Rosabeth Moss Kanter                                     101
Kurt Lewin                                               102
Robert Michels                                           102
George Ritzer                                            103
Georg Simmel                                             103
Philip G. Zimbardo                                       104
Careers in Sociology                                       105
Additional Resources                                       106
Chapter 6: Deviance and Social Control                               109
Theories of Deviance                                       111
Biological Perspectives                                  111
Structural-Functionalist Perspectives                    112
Social Bonds                                          113
Structural Strain                                     114
Opportunity Structures                                114



Social Control                                        115
Social-Conflict Perspectives                               116
Symbolic-Interactionist Perspectives                       118
Labeling                                                 118
The Medicalization of Deviance                           120
Cultural Transmission                                    121
Globalization and the Internet                             121
Biographies                                                123
Howard Becker                                            123
William Chambliss                                        124
Peter Conrad                                             124
Travis Hirschi                                           125
Cesare Lombroso                                          125
Coramae Richey Mann                                      126
Richard Quinney                                          127
Edwin H. Sutherland                                      127
Careers in Sociology                                       128
Additional Resources                                       129
Chapter 7: Stratification                                            131
Forms of Stratification                                    132
Stratification in the United States                        134
Poverty                                                  134
Sources of Stratification                                  137
Structural-Functionalist Perspectives                    137
Social-Conflict Perspectives                             139
Multidimensional Perspectives                            140
Maintaining Stratification                                 141
Social Mobility                                            143
Globalization and the Internet                             145
Biographies                                                147
Kingsley Davis                                           147
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois                         148
Friedrich Engels                                         148
Immanuel Wallerstein                                     149
William Julius Wilson                                    150
Careers in Sociology                                       150
Additional Resources                                       151
Chapter 8: Population Structure, Movements, and Concentration        153
Population Change                                          153
Population Structures                                    155
Fast Population Growth                                155
Slow Population Growth                                155
Declining Populations                                 157
Theories of Demographic Change                           157
Malthusian Theory                                     158
Demographic-Transition Theory                         159
Measuring Population                                       160
Population and Urbanization                                160



History of Urban Sociology                               162
Urban Ecology                                            165
Urban Sociology Today                                    166
Suburbs                                                  167
Nature of Urban Life and Community                       169
Globalization and the Internet                             170
Biographies                                                171
Herbert Gans                                             171
Mark Gottdiener                                          172
Thomas Robert Malthus                                    173
Robert Ezra Park                                         173
Ferdinand Toennies                                       174
Barry Wellman                                            175
Louis Wirth                                              176
Careers in Sociology                                       177
Additional Resources                                       177
Chapter 9: Social Change, Behavior, and Movements                   179
Collective Behavior                                       180
Forms of Collective Behavior                            180
Fashions and Fads                                    180
Rumors                                               181
Urban Legends                                        183
Mass Hysteria                                        184
Crowds                                               184
Theories of Collective Behavior                         185
Contagion Theory                                     186
Emergent-Norm Theory                                 186
Value-Added Theory                                   187
Social Movements                                          188
Formation of Social Movements                           188
Types of Social Movements                               189
Decline of Social Movements                             191
Theories of Social Movements                            192
Resource-Mobilization Theory                         192
New Social Movements                                 193
Globalization and the Internet                            194
Biographies                                               195
Herbert Blumer                                          195
Gustave Le Bon                                          196
Stanley Lieberson                                       197
Neil Smelser                                            197
Pitirim A. Sorokin                                      198
Thorstein Veblen                                        198
Careers in Sociology                                      199
Additional Resources                                      200
Chapter 10: Research Methods                                         203
Conducting Sociological Research                          204
Sociological Research Methods                             205



Questioning                                            206
Noticing                                               208
Analyzing                                              209
Explaining                                             211
Research Ethics                                          212
Research on the Internet                                 213
The Research Process                                     214
Biographies                                              216
Emile Durkheim                                         216
Andrew M. Greeley                                      217
Paul Lazarsfeld                                        218
Stanley Milgram                                        219
Dorothy Smith                                          220
Careers in Sociology                                     221
Additional Resources                                     221
Chapter 11: Preparing to Be a Sociologist and Career Opportunities  223
Academic Training for Sociologists                       223
The Popularity of Studying Sociology                   224
Characteristics of Sociology Students                  225
Sociologists in the Workplace (Academics and Beyond)     227
Job Skills                                             228
Career Preparation                                     228
Sociologists at Work                                   229
Sociological Practice                               229
Where Sociologists Work                             230
Salaries for Sociologists                           231
Professional Organizations                               233
Biographies                                              235
Jane Addams                                            235
Arthur B. Shostak                                      236
Stephen F Steele                                       237
RogerA. Straus                                         237
Lester Ward                                            238
William Foote Whyte                                    238
Additional Resources                                     239
Glossary                                                            241
References                                                          253
Index                                                               291





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Sociology, Sociology History, Sociologists Biography, Internet Social aspects, Sociology Vocational guidance