Table of contents for Classifying science : phenomena, data, theory, method, practice / by Rick Szostak.


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List of Tables                                     vii
Preface                                            ix

Chapter 1: Classifying Science                    1
1.1. A Simple Classificatory Guideline           3
1.2. The First "Cut" (and Plan of Work)          5
1.3. Some Preliminaries                          9

Chapter 2: Classifying Phenomena and Data       23
2.1. Classifying Phenomena                         23
2.2. Classifying Data                              45

Chapter 3: Classifying Theory                       51
3.1. Typology of Theory                             55
3.2. What Is a Theory?                              74
3.3. Evaluating Theories                            78
3.4. Types of Theory and the Five Types
    of Causation                                    80
3.5. Classifying Individual Theories                82
3.6. Advantages of a Typology of Theory         95

Chapter 4: Classifying Method                       99
4.1. Classifying Methods                           101
4.2. Typology of Strengths and Weaknesses
    of Methods                                     103
 4.3. Qualitative Versus Quantitative Analysis
     Revisited                                     109
 4.4. Evaluating Methods                           113
 4.5. Classifying Particular Methods Within
    The Typology                                   116
 4.6. Advantages of a Typology of Methods          144





Chapter 5: Classifying Practice                  155
5.1. Errors and Biases in Science                158
5.2. Typology of (Critiques of) Scientific
    Practice                                     161
5.3. Utilizing This Classification               192
5.4. The Five Types of Ethical Analysis       194

Chapter 6: Drawing Connections Across
These Classifications                            199
6.1. Theory and Method                           199
6.2. Theory (Method) and Phenomena (Data)     203
6.3. Better Paradigms                            208
6.4. Critiques of Scientific Practice: Are They
    Correlated with Other Classifications?    213

Chapter 7: Classifying Scientific Documents   217
7.1. Faceted or Enumerative?                     219
7.2. Classifying By Phenomena Studied         221
7.3. Classifying By Theory Used                  225
7.4. Classifying By Method Used                  227
7.5 Links Among Subjects                         228
7.6. Type of Work, Language, and More         229
7.7. Critiques of Scientific Practice         230
7.8. Classifying Philosophy                      231
7.9. Evaluating the System                       232

Chapter 8: Concluding Remarks                    239
8.1. The Classifications                          239
8.2. Advantages of These Various Classifications  241
8.3. Drawing Connections Across Classifications   245
8.4. Golden Mean Arguments                        247
8.5. Why Should Science Be Believed?              249
8.6. How Can Science Be Improved?                 250
8.7. How Should Science Be Taught?                259

References                                        269
Index                                             279





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Classification of sciences