Table of contents for The multimedia Internet / Stephen Weinstein.


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1. A BACKGROUND FOR NETWORKED DIGITAL MEDIA                     1
   1.1 PROTOCOL LAYERING AND AN INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
      ADDRESSES AND PORTS                                      2
   1.2 WHAT IS MULTIMEDIA?                                     4
   1.3 MULTIMEDIA EXCHANGES                                     6
   1.4 CONSUMER-ORIENTED APPLICATIONS                     11
   1.5 MULTIMEDIA COMPUTING AND DEVICES                  20
      1.5.1 Digital Video Display Formats                26
      1.5.2 Liquid Crystal Display Technology            29
      1.5.3 Storage Technologies and Requirements        30
   1.6 THE PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS: SINUSOIDS, FREQUENCY
      SPECTRA, AND BANDWIDTH                             32
      1.6.1 Frequency and Bandwidth-Related Operations        34
   1.7 ANALOG TO DIGITAL MEDIA CONVERSION                39
      1.7.1 The Sampling Theorem                         40
      1.7.2 Digitization and Pulse Code Modulation       41
      1.7.3 Digitized vs. Synthesized Media              44
   1.8 QUALITY OF SERVICE CRITERIA                       46


2. DIGITAL CODING OF AUDIO AND VIDEO                      51
   2.1 THE ALTERNATIVES AND TRADEOFFS OF DIGITAL CODING        53
   2.2 LOSSLESS ENTROPY CODING                            56
      2.2.1 Huffinan Coding                               56
      2.2.2 Arithmetic Coding                             57
      2.2.3 FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec)              59
   2.3 THE TIFF, AIFF, and WAV FILE FORMATS               60
   2.4 FACSIMILE COMPRESSIVE CODING                       63




   2.5 TRANSFORM-DOMAIN CODING: THE DISCRETE COSINE
      TRANSFORM (DCT)                                        64
   2.6 TRANSFORM-DOMAIN CODING: WAVELET DECOMPOSITION        67
   2.7 JPEG STILL IMAGE CODING                               72
   2.8 JPEG 2000 STILL IMAGE CODING                          76
   2.9 COMPRESSIVE VIDEO CODING                              78
       2.9.1 Motion JPEG and Digital Video                   79
       2.9.2 H.261 and H.263 Conferencing Video              81
   2.10 MPEG                                                 85
       2.10.1 Levels of Containment: I, P and B Frames, the Group of Pictures,
          and Macroblocks                                    88
       2.10.2 Intra- and Inter-Picture Compressive Coding          89
       2.10.3 The MPEG-2 Systems Layer                       93
       2.10.4 MPEG Audio Coding: MP-3 and AAC                97
       2.10.5'MPEG-4                                         101
          2.10.5.1 Scene Description, Data Streams, and Encoding  101
          2.10.5.2 MPEG-4 Systems Level                      105
          2.10.5.3 H.26L                                     107
          2.10.5.4DivX                                       110
       2.10.6 MPEG-21                                        110
       2.10.7 Digital Television and the :Grand Alliance" HDTV System  113
   2.11 MEDIA ENCODING SYSTEMS AND COMMUNICATIONS
       CAPACITY                                              119

3. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND TECHNOLOGIES                   121
   3.1 NETWORK CATEGORIES                                    122
   3.2 THE DWDM CORE OPTICAL NETWORK                         125
       3.2.1 Opaque and Transparent Optical Nets, and Hierarchical
          Switching                                          128
       3.2.2 SONET and IP Traffic                            131
   3.3 CIRCUIT, PACKET, AND CELL-SWITCHED COMMUNICATION           134
       3.3.1 Circuit-switched Communication                  135
       3.3.2 Packet-Switched Communication and Routing       136
       3.3.3 Asynchronous Transfer Mode                      138
   3.4 COMPUTER COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS                   143
   3.5 WIRED LOCAL NETWORKS                                  147
       3.5.1 IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet)                           148
       3.5.2 IEEE 1394                                       152
   3.6 MODULATION TECHNIQUES                                 155
       3.6.1 Linear Modulation Formats and FM                155
       3.6.2 Spread Spectrum: Frequency-hopping, Direct Sequence, and
          UWB                                                157
       3.6.3 QAM - A Closer Look                             160
       3.6.4 DMT/OFDM - A Closer Look                        162
       3.6.5 Trellis-Coded Modulation and Turbo Codes        167
   3.7 WIRED ACCESS NETWORKS                                 170




       3.7.1 xDSL                                             171
       3.7.2 Cable Data Systems                               174
          3.7.2.1 DOCSIS Medium Access Control                177
       3.7.3 Power-Line Access Networking                     181
   3.8 WIRELESS NETWORKING                                    182
       3.8.1 3G/4G Cellular Mobile Systems                    188
          3.8.1.1 IEEE 802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access     192
       3.8.2 MIMO Antennas and Space-Time Codes               193
       3.8.3 IEEE 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan-Area Network "WiMax"  198
       3.8.4 IEEE 802.11 "WiFi"                               201
          3.8.4.1 Modulation in 802.11a,b,g,n                 202
          3.8.4.2 MAC for Access and QoS                      204
       3.8.5 Bluetooth                                        208
       3.8.6 Zigbee/IEEE 802.15.4                             210
   3.9 THE FUTURE OF BROADBAND COMMUNICATION                  211

4. INTERNET PROTOCOLS, SERVICES, AND SOFTWARE                 213
   4.1 INTERNET HISTORY AND PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE             215
   4.2 BASIC INTERNET SERVICES                                220
       4.2.1 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)          221
   4.3 THE INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP)                             222
       4.3.1 IPv4                                             225
       4.3.2 IPv6                                             228
   4.4 TCP AND UDP                                            231
   4.5 INTERNET QoS SERVICES                                  236
       4.5.1 Differentiated Services (DiffServ)               237
          4.5.1.1 DiffServ Classes and PHB Groups             238
          4.5.1.2 The Service Level Specification (SLS) and
              Traffic Conditioning                            240
       4.5.2 Integrated Services (IntServ)                    244
   4.6 MULTI-PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING (MPLS)                  247
   4.7 THE WORLD WIDE WEB                                     251
       4.7.1 The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)           252
   4.8 HYPERMEDIA AND MARKUP LANGUAGES                        255
       4.8.1 HyperText Markup Language (HTML)                 257
       4.8.2 eXtensible Markup Language (XML)                 261
          4.8.2.1 XHTML                                       264
          4.8.2.2 Voice XML                                   266
          4.8.2.3 WAP, XHTMLMP and WML                        267
          4.8.2.4 Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)  269
          4.8.2.5 XML DTD, Schema and Other Features          271
    4.9 IP MOBILITY                                           273
       4.9.1 Mobile IP                                        274
       4.9.2 Application-Layer Mobility                       275
       4.9.3 Cellular IP                                      276
    4.10 OBJECT-BASED SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES                   277




       4.10.1 JAVA and C#                                     279
       4.10.2 CORBA and SOAP                                  281
       4.10.3 Networked Services Environments                 286
       4.10.4 OpenCable Applications Platform                 289

5. MEDIA PROTOCOLS AND APPLICATIONS                           293
   5.1 VOICE OVER IP (VoIP)                                   294
   5.2 MULTIMEDIA CONFERENCING PROTOCOL H.323                 300
   5.3 MEGACO/H.248                                           305
   5.4 SESSION INITIATION PROTOCOL (SIP)                      309
       5.4.1 Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTM)         313
       5.4.2 LDAP and H.350 Directory Services                314
   5.5 RESERVATION PROTOCOL (RSVP)                            315
   5.6 REAL-TIME PROTOCOL (RTP)                               318
   5.7 MEDIA STREAMING AND THE REAL-TIME STREAMING
       PROTOCOL (RTSP)                                        324
       5.7.1 Media Streaming Modes                            325
       5.7.2 RTSP                                             327
          5.7.2.1 Session Definition Protocol (SDP)           328
          5.7.2.2 RTSP Operation                              329
   5.8 REAL-TIME STREAMING SYSTEMS                            335
       5.8.1 Video on Demand Streaming: Server Systems        335
       5.8.2 Internet Broadcasting                            342
    5.9 COMMERCIAL STREAMING SYSTEMS                          345
       5.9.1 RealNetworks' Streaming System                   346
       5.9.2 Microsoft Windows Media 9TM                      352
       5.9.3 The Apple QuickTimeTM System                     354
       5.9.4 The Digital FountainTM Media Streaming System    357
    5.10 LOOKING TO THE FUTURE                                360

References                                                    361
Index                                                         375





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Multimedia systems, Internet