Table of contents for Development planning : concepts and tools for planners, managers and facilitators / Reidar Dale.


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1   Development and Development Planning                        1
    Conceptualising Development                                 1
    Conceptualising Development Planning                        4
    Conceptions of Rationality                                 10

2   Strategic Planning for Development                         15
    Strategy, Strategy Formulation and Strategic Planning      15
    Main Analytical Categories and Variables                   17
    Identifying and Analysing Stakeholders                     20
    Conceptualising Greater Organisational Complexity          22
    Variables and Linkages in Comprehensive
        Strategic Planning                                     26
    Timing, Time Horizon and Scope of Action                   30

3   Diversifying Perspectives on Planning                      36
    Linking to More General Concepts of Value and Intent       36
    Strategic versus Operational and Adjustive Planning        37
    From Long-Range Planning to Continuous
        Strategic Management                                   39
    Process Versus Blueprint Planning                          43
    Planning Categories by Functional Level and Type of Area   50
    Connecting Planning to the Concepts of Programme
        and Project                                            57




4   Elaborating Linkages in Development Work                   61
    Connecting Design Variables, Work Categories
        and Intended Achievements                              61
    The Logical Framework                                      67
    Adding Dimensions of Organisation                          72

5   Problem Analysis                                           81
    Conceptualising Development Problems                       81
    Generating Information about Problems                      82
    Verbal Analysis                                            89
    Ranking                                                    92
    Cause-Effect Charting                                      98

6   Means-Ends Analysis                                       104
    Basic Concepts and Relations Revisited                    104
    Relating Problems to Abilities, Opportunities and Constraints  106
    From Problem Structures to Means-Ends Structures          107
    Specifying Means-Ends Relations in the Logical Framework  112
    Means-Ends Relations in Organisation-Building Programmes  114

7   Formulating Indicators of Achievements                    121
    The Concept of 'Indicator'                                121
    Characteristics of Good Indicators                        124
    Specifying Indicators in the Logical Framework            128
    Generating Information on Indicators                      134
    A Conclusion on Indicators and a Reflection Beyond Them   136

8   Assessing and Interacting with the Environment            139
    Contextual Analysis: a Hallmark of Development Planning   139
    Opportunities, Constraints and Threats                    141
    Moving Boundaries between the Internal and the External   145
    Incorporating Assumptions into the Logical Framework      148
    A Further Reflection about Assumptions                    152

9   Tools of Prioritisation                                   157
    Introduction                                              157
    Negotiation                                               159
    Voting                                                    164
    Techniques of Ranking                                     165
    Criteria-Based Prioritisation                             171
    Economic Tools of Prioritisation                          174




10  Community Institution Building and Participatory Planning 182
    Participatory Development: Justification, Principles and
         Implications                                         182
    Modes and Means of Participation                          184
    Building Capacity, Organisations and Institutions:
         Some Definitions                                     187
    Institution Building as Process                           189
    Social Mobilisation                                       192
    Process versus Blueprint Planning for Local
         Institution Building                                 194
    Creating Synergies between Planning and
         Institution Building                                 200

Bibliography                                                  208
Index                                                         213





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Economic development Planning