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Acknowledgements ix Abbreviations xi Introduction 1 1 Mimetic Desire 9 Desire and mimesis 10 The epistemology of literature, or, literature as epistemology? 12 Mimesis and the dynamics of rivalry: internal and external mediation 16 Pseudo-masochism, pseudo-sadism, and 'metaphysical desire' 24 Metaphysical desire and Stendhalian modernity 29 The engagement with psychoanalysis 32 2 Sacrificial Crisis and Surrogate Victimage 41 Monstrous doubles: the sacrificial crisis 42 The scapegoat and the surrogate victimage mechanism 47 Ritual: re-enacting the sacred 54 Prohibition: proscribing the sacred 64 Concluding short excursus on the social and the sacred 67 3 Myth, Tragedy, History 70 Hominization: the birth of the human 71 Myth: narrating the sacred 77 Short excursus on Levi-Strauss and structuralism 84 Tragedy: surrogate victimage 'through a glass darkly' 89 Between myth and history: texts of persecution 101 4 Non-Sacrificial Violence: The Judeo-Christian Scriptures 111 The Bible and world myth 115 Dionysus versus the Crucified 124 The return of the repressed: things hidden since the foundation of the world 130 The skandalon 136 Historical Christianity 143 Conclusion: sacred allergies 149 5 Conclusion 152 Notes 165 References and Bibliography 188 Index 203Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Girard, Ren‚e, 1923-Culture Philosophy