Table of contents for The counter-terrorism puzzle : a guide for decision makers / Boaz Ganor.

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List of Figures                                              xi

Acknowledgements                                            xiii

Preface                                                      xv

1. Dilemmas in Defining the Threat                      1
       The Need for a Definition                         1
       Terrorism and Crime                               8
       Terrorism and Political Protest                       10
       "Terrorism" versus "National Liberation"         12
       Injury to "Innocents"                                 15
       A Proposed Working Definition                         16

2. Dilemmas in Defining Counter-Terrorism                    25
       Defining the Goals of Israel's War against Terrorism  27
       Factors that Influence the Scope of Terrorism    28
         and Its Nature
       Dominance of the Military Component in                38
         Counter-Terrorism Policy
       Defining a Counter-Terrorism Policy                   44

3. Intelligence Dilemmas in the War on Terrorism       47
       Employing Human Intelligence Sources ("humint")  51
       Intelligence Cooperation between Israel and the  53
          Palestinians during the 1990s
       International Cooperation in the Intelligence Domain  57
       Coordinating Intelligence and Operations         58
       Decision Makers and Intelligence                      61


4. Dilemmas in the Deterrence of Terrorists                63
       Israel's Policy of Deterrence                       70
       The Issue of the Rationality of Terrorist Organizations  74
       Deterring Suicide Terrorists                        76
       Deterring State Sponsors of Terrorism               79
       Defensive Deterrence                                93
       Drawing "Red Lines" with Regard to Terrorist Activity  94
       Escalation and Efficiency of Terrorism as a         95
         Result of Deterrent Activity
       Summary and Conclusions                             96

5. Dilemmas Concerning Offensive and Defensive            101
    Counter-Terrorism Actions
       Assessing the Effectiveness of an Offensive Action 101
       Targeted Killing-The Normative-Moral Dilemma       112
       Targeted Killing as a Component of Israel's        120
         Counter-Terrorism Policy
       "The Boomerang Effect"                             129
       Timing Offensive Actions against Terrorism         135
       Defensive Action in the War against Terrorism      141

6. Democratic Dilemmas in the War against Terrorism       147
       Public Opinion in the Liberal Democracy            149
       The Limitations of Punishment                      153
       The Value of Human Life                            154
       The Governance Dilemma                             154
       The Ethical Dilemma                                156
       The Democratic-Intelligence Dilemma                158
       Methods of Interrogating Terrorists-Example of     160
          a Democratic Dilemma in Counter-Terrorism
       The Offensive Democratic Dilemma                   172
       The Defensive Democratic Dilemma                   174
       A Theoretical Model for Examining                  176
          Democratic Dilemmas in Counter-Terrorism Activity
       Summary and Recommendations                        178

 7. Dilemmas in Legislative and Punitive Policies         183
       Forfeiture of Funds to Terrorist Organizations     190
       Definite Anti-Terrorism Legislation                 192


      Emergency Anti-Terrorism Legislation               193
      Outlawing Terrorist Organizations                  194
      Public Trial and Evidentiary Privilege             197
      Prosecution of Those Suspected of Involvement   199
         in Terrorism
      Summary of the Legislative Dilemmas                200
      Types of Punishment for Terrorists                 202
      Collective Punishment                              203
      Administrative Punishment                          213

8. Dilemmas Concerning Media Coverage of                 229
   Terrorist Attacks
      The Media as Part of the Strategy of Terrorism  234
      The Journalist's Dilemma                           236
      The Live Broadcast Dilemma                         238
      The Media Coverage of Terrorist Attacks and Its  240
         Effect on the Broadcast Schedule
       Interviewing Terrorists and Broadcasting Their  241
         Video Tapes
       Media Response to Invitations from Terrorists   245
       Censoring the Media while Covering Terrorism    246

9. Dilemmas in Coping with the Psychological-Morale   251
    Damage from Terrorism
       Publicizing Intelligence Warnings Regarding a   258
         Potential Attack
       Reinforcing the Public's Ability to Cope        260
       The Psychological Impact of Terrorism in Israel  262
         and Its Effect on Morale
       The Morale Component in Decision-Making         265
       Using Offensive Means for Purposes of Morale    269
       Summary and Conclusions                            270

 10. Dilemmas Concerning International Cooperation on  273
       Creating a Joint, Legal-Normative Platform to   278
         Combat Terrorism
       Cooperation in Combating Terrorism                 279
       Establishing Joint International Counter-Terrorism 282


       Summary and Conclusions                            285

Summary and Conclusions: Israel's Counter-                287
Terrorism Strategy

Notes                                                     299

Appendix A: Conclusions of the "Shefayyim Conference"  325
     of The International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism
Appendix B: Recommendations by Participants in the   329
    Conference on International Cooperation on Terrorism

Index                                                     331


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