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List of Figures xi Acknowledgements xiii Preface xv 1. Dilemmas in Defining the Threat 1 The Need for a Definition 1 Terrorism and Crime 8 Terrorism and Political Protest 10 "Terrorism" versus "National Liberation" 12 Injury to "Innocents" 15 A Proposed Working Definition 16 2. Dilemmas in Defining Counter-Terrorism 25 Defining the Goals of Israel's War against Terrorism 27 Factors that Influence the Scope of Terrorism 28 and Its Nature Dominance of the Military Component in 38 Counter-Terrorism Policy Defining a Counter-Terrorism Policy 44 3. Intelligence Dilemmas in the War on Terrorism 47 Employing Human Intelligence Sources ("humint") 51 Intelligence Cooperation between Israel and the 53 Palestinians during the 1990s International Cooperation in the Intelligence Domain 57 Coordinating Intelligence and Operations 58 Decision Makers and Intelligence 61 4. Dilemmas in the Deterrence of Terrorists 63 Israel's Policy of Deterrence 70 The Issue of the Rationality of Terrorist Organizations 74 Deterring Suicide Terrorists 76 Deterring State Sponsors of Terrorism 79 Defensive Deterrence 93 Drawing "Red Lines" with Regard to Terrorist Activity 94 Escalation and Efficiency of Terrorism as a 95 Result of Deterrent Activity Summary and Conclusions 96 5. Dilemmas Concerning Offensive and Defensive 101 Counter-Terrorism Actions Assessing the Effectiveness of an Offensive Action 101 Targeted Killing-The Normative-Moral Dilemma 112 Targeted Killing as a Component of Israel's 120 Counter-Terrorism Policy "The Boomerang Effect" 129 Timing Offensive Actions against Terrorism 135 Defensive Action in the War against Terrorism 141 6. Democratic Dilemmas in the War against Terrorism 147 Public Opinion in the Liberal Democracy 149 The Limitations of Punishment 153 The Value of Human Life 154 The Governance Dilemma 154 The Ethical Dilemma 156 The Democratic-Intelligence Dilemma 158 Methods of Interrogating Terrorists-Example of 160 a Democratic Dilemma in Counter-Terrorism The Offensive Democratic Dilemma 172 The Defensive Democratic Dilemma 174 A Theoretical Model for Examining 176 Democratic Dilemmas in Counter-Terrorism Activity Summary and Recommendations 178 7. Dilemmas in Legislative and Punitive Policies 183 Forfeiture of Funds to Terrorist Organizations 190 Definite Anti-Terrorism Legislation 192 Emergency Anti-Terrorism Legislation 193 Outlawing Terrorist Organizations 194 Public Trial and Evidentiary Privilege 197 Prosecution of Those Suspected of Involvement 199 in Terrorism Summary of the Legislative Dilemmas 200 Types of Punishment for Terrorists 202 Collective Punishment 203 Administrative Punishment 213 8. Dilemmas Concerning Media Coverage of 229 Terrorist Attacks The Media as Part of the Strategy of Terrorism 234 The Journalist's Dilemma 236 The Live Broadcast Dilemma 238 The Media Coverage of Terrorist Attacks and Its 240 Effect on the Broadcast Schedule Interviewing Terrorists and Broadcasting Their 241 Video Tapes Media Response to Invitations from Terrorists 245 Censoring the Media while Covering Terrorism 246 9. Dilemmas in Coping with the Psychological-Morale 251 Damage from Terrorism Publicizing Intelligence Warnings Regarding a 258 Potential Attack Reinforcing the Public's Ability to Cope 260 The Psychological Impact of Terrorism in Israel 262 and Its Effect on Morale The Morale Component in Decision-Making 265 Using Offensive Means for Purposes of Morale 269 Summary and Conclusions 270 10. Dilemmas Concerning International Cooperation on 273 Counter-Terrorism Creating a Joint, Legal-Normative Platform to 278 Combat Terrorism Cooperation in Combating Terrorism 279 Establishing Joint International Counter-Terrorism 282 Frameworks Summary and Conclusions 285 Summary and Conclusions: Israel's Counter- 287 Terrorism Strategy Notes 299 Appendix A: Conclusions of the "Shefayyim Conference" 325 of The International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism Appendix B: Recommendations by Participants in the 329 Conference on International Cooperation on Terrorism Index 331Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: