Table of contents for Statistical analysis of epidemiologic data / Steve Selvin.


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1. Measures of Risk: Rates and Probabilities, 1
Rates, 2
Probabilities, 6
Incidence and prevalence, 8
Survival probabilities and hazard rates, 12
Statistical properties of probabilities calculated from mortality
or disease data, 14
Analysis of rates: smoothing, transforming, and adjusting, 22
2. Variation and Bias, 40
A simple model, 41
The t-test, 43
Selection bias, 48
Confounder bias, 50
Ecologic bias, 52
Comparison of k groups, 54
Interaction contrasts, 58
Two-way analysis, 62
Misclassification bias, 69



3. Statistical Power and Sample Size Calculations, 75
Technical details, 75
Normal distribution: sample mean, 79
Poisson distribution: relative risk, 80
Sample size: one-sample test of a proportion, 82
Sample size: two-sample test of proportions, 84
Loss of statistical power and bias from grouping continuous data, 88
4. Cohort Data: Description and Illustration, 93
Cohort effect: model, 94
Birth cohort effect and proportional mortality data, 97
Median polish analysis, 100
Mean polish analysis, 102
Four examples, 104
Cohort effect: prostatic cancer data, 110
5. Spatial Data: Analysis and Estimation, 120
Poisson model, 121
Nearest-neighbor analysis, 125
Transformed maps, 130
Spatial distribution about a point, 135
Time/distance spatial analysis, 138
Randomization test, 143
Time/distance: randomization test, 146
Bootstrap estimation and analysis, 149
6. The 2 X k Table and the 2 X 2 X 2 Table, 159
The 2 X k contingency table, 159
Independence and homogeneity, 160
Regression, 165
Two-sample model: comparison of two means, 169
Ridit probability analysis, 173
The 2 X 2 X 2 contingency table, 179
7. The Analysis of Contingency Table Data: Logistic Model I, 190
The simplest model: discrete case, 191
The 2 X 2 X 2 table, 199
The 2 X k table, 208
The 2 x 2 x k table, 213
The multiway table, 221
Goodness-of-fit: discrete case, 224
Summarizing a series of 2 X 2 tables, 227



8. The Analysis of Binary Data: Logistic Model II, 236
Simplest logistic regression: continuous case, 236
Bivariate logistic regression, 240
Logistic regression coefficients: general considerations, 248
"Centering", 249
The WCGS additive logistic model, 252
Case/control sampling, 259
9. The Analysis of Count Data: Poisson Model, 263
Simplest Poisson model, 264
Poisson model: technical description, 265
Illustration of the Poisson model, 266
Poisson model adjusted rate: Hodgkins disease, 268
Possion regression: CHD risk by smoking and behavior type, 273
Count data: application of the Poisson model, 276
Poisson regression: a two-way classification, 278
Poisson regression: a three-way classification, 283
10. The Analysis of Matched Data: Three Approaches, 291
Frequency matching, 292
Poststratification, 294
Matched analysis: continuous variable, 296
Matched case/control pairs: binary risk factor, 300
Confidence interval for the odds ratio, 305
Evaluating the estimated odds ratio, 307
Disregarding matching, 309
Interactions with the matching variable, 311
Matched sets using more than one control, 313
Matched analysis: multilevel categorical risk factor, 317
Conditional logistic analysis, 320
11. Life Table Analysis: An Introduction, 335
Complete, current life table: construction, 336
Life table survival function, 350
Life table hazard function, 350
Life tables: three applications of life table techniques, 356
Competing risks, 372
12. Survival Data: Estimation of Risk, 378
Parametric model, 379
Age adjustment of rates, 382
Censored and truncated data, 384



Mean survival time: parametric estimate, 386
Mean survival time: nonparametric estimate, 390
Mean survival time from censored data, 393
Goodness-of-fit, 396
Two-sample data, 399
The Wilcoxon test and the Gehan generalization to survival data, 407
13. Survival Data: Proportional Hazards Model, 412
Simplest case, 413
The proportional hazards model, 417
Plotting survival curves, 420
Four applications of a proportional hazards model, 421
Dependency on follow-up time, 439
Appendix, 443
A. Description of the WCGS data set, 443
B. Binomial and Poisson probability distributions, 445
C. The odds ratio and its properties, 448
D. Partitioning the chi-square statistic, 454
E. Maximum likelihood estimation and likelihood functions, 457
F. Problems, 464
References, 479
Index, 487





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Epidemiology Statistical methods