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2 The People of Egypt The complexity of Egyptian identity 18 Women in Egyptian society 115 The Copts - the descendants of the Pharaohs as a minority today 123 The Nubians - a people without a homeland 127 The Bedouin of the marginal deserts 127 Dynamics of growth, spatial distribution and migration of the Egyptian population 129 3 From Foreign Rule to Self-determination Egypt's history seen from an Egyptian perspective 134 Civil society in Egypt - an agent of social and political change? 137 4 Egypt's Natural Potential Geological and morphological structures of the country 142 Climatic conditions 150 Soils 152 Vegetation, fauna and the processes of desertification 153 5 The Regional Structure of Egypt The Western Desert 157 The Eastern Desert 160 The Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal Zone 161 The Nile Valley 164 The Nile Delta 165 6 Egypt's Water Resources and Water Demand Rainfall in Egypt - an under-used potential 168 Groundwater a limited resource 169 The Nile 170 7 Development and Features of the Egyptian Economy From socialism to capitalism - fifty years of changing economic policies 193 Deregulation of the economy and the problems of unemployment and migration 199 Education and the labour force 1103 Egypt as a rentier state 1 110 8 Egypt's Agriculture under Stress Foreign currency versus food security 114 Land tenure and land distribution in Egypt 1114 Historical development of Egypt's agricultural production 1121 The country's agricultural production today 1124 Land reclamation - Egypt's hope for the future 1140 Animal husbandry and the fishing industry 1153 9 Old and New Industries in Egypt The history of industrialization in Egypt 1157 The economic and political background of Egyptian industries 163 The problems of Egypt's industries today } 170 10 Tourism in Egypt International tourism 1175 Domestic tourism 1197 11 Egypt's Urban Centres and Rural Settlements Cairo metropolis [202 Mediterranean metropolis: Alexandria 1222 The regional capitals 1235 Towns in the desert - a rediscovered urbanization strategy for Egypt 1241 Egypt's rural settlements 1245 12 The Prospectsfor Egypt's Economy at the Beginning of the Twentyfirst Century The struggle for economic transformation 1247 Egypt's capital investment environment 1250 Boosting research and technological development 1251 Agricultural mega-projects for the third millennium 1252 Sustainability of development in Egypt 1254Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Egypt Economic conditions, Human geography Egypt