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List of Illustrations xii List of Maps and Tables xviii Series Editor's Preface xix Acknowledgments xxii Notes and Conventions xxiii Introduction 1 The Organization of the Book 3 Problem One: "Prime Movers" and the Economic Factor 5 Problem Two: Global History and Postmodernism 8 Problem Three: The Continuing "Riddle of the Modern" 9 Conforming to Standards: Bodily Practice 12 Building Outward from the Body: Communications and Complexity 19 PART I THE END OF THE OLD REGIME 23 Old Regimes and "Archaic Globalization" 27 Peasants and Lords 27 The Politics of Difference 29 towers on the Fringes of States 36 arbingers of New Political Formations 40 The Prehistory of "Globalization" 41 rchaic and Early Modem Globalization 44 tospect 47 ssages from the Old Regimes to Modernity 49 The Last "Great Domestication" and "Industrious Revolutions" 49 New Patterns of Afro-Asian Material Culture, Production, and Trade 55 The Internal and External Limits of Afro-Asian "Industrious Revolutions" 58 Trade, Finance, and Innovation: European Competitive Advantages 59 The Activist, Patriotic State Evolves 64 Critical Publics 71 The Development of Asian and African Publics 76 Conclusion: "Backwardness," Lags, and Conjunctures 80 Prospect 82 3 Converging Revolutions, 1780-1820 86 Contemporaries Ponder the World Crisis 86 A Summary Anatomy of the World Crisis, 1720-1820 88 Sapping the Legitimacy of the State: From France to China 100 The Ideological Origins of the Modern Left and the Moder State 106 Nationalities versus States and Empires 112 The Third Revolution: Polite and Commercial Peoples Worldwide 114 Prospect 120 PART II THE MODERN WORLD IN GENESIS 121 4 Between World Revolutions, c.1815-1865 125 Assessing the "Wreck of Nations" 125 British Maritime Supremacy, World Trade, and the Revival of Agriculture 128 Emigration: A Safety Valve? 132 The Losers in the "New World Order," 1815-1865 134 Problems of Hybrid Legitimacy: Whose State Was It? 139 The State Gains Strength, but not Enough 143 Wars of Legitimacy in Asia: A Summary Account 148 Economic and Ideological Roots of the Asian Revolutions 151 The Years of Hunger and Rebellion in Europe, 1848-1851 155 The American Civil War as a Global Event 161 Convergence or Difference? 165 Reviewing the Argument 168 5 Industrialization and the New City 170 Historians, Industrialization, and Cities 170 The Progress of Industrialization 172 Poverty and the Absence of Industry 177 Cities as Centers of Production, Consumption, and Politics 183 The Urban Impact of the Global Crisis, 1780-1820 186 Race and Class in the New Cities 188 Working-Class Politics 191 Worldwide Urban Cultures and their Critics 194 Conclusion 198 6 Nation, Empire, and Ethnicity, c.1860-1900 199 Theories of Nationalism 199 When was Nationalism? 205 Whose Nation? 206 Perpetuating Nationalisms: Memories, National Associations, and Print 208 From Community to Nation: The Eurasian Empires 212 Where We Stand with Nationalism 218 Peoples without States: Persecution or Assimilation? 219 Imperialism and its History: The Late Nineteenth Century 227 Dimensions of the "New Imperialism" 228 A World of Nation-States? 234 The Persistence of Archaic Globalization 234 From Globalization to Internationalism 236 Internationalism in Practice 239 Conclusion 242 PART III STATE AND SOCIETY IN THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM 245 7 Myths and Technologies of the Modern State 247 Dimensions of the Moder State 247 The State and the Historians 249 Problems of Defining the State 252 The Modern State Takes Root: Geographical Dimensions 254 Claims to Justice and Symbols of Power 261 The State's Resources 265 The State's Obligations to Society 271 Tools of the State 274 State, Economy, and Nation 277 A Balance Sheet: What had the State Achieved? 281 8 The Theory and Practice of Liberalism, Rationalism, Socialism, and Science 284 Contextualizing Intellectual History 284 The Corruption of the Righteous Republic: A Classic Theme 285 Righteous Republics Worldwide 288 The Advent of Liberalism and the Market: Western Exceptionalism? 290 Liberalism and Land Reform: Radical Theory and Conservative Practice 295 Free Trade or National Political Economy? 300 Representing the Peoples 302 Secularism and Positivism: Transnational Affinities 307 The Reception of Socialism and its Local Resonances 308 iicience in Global Context 312 .Trofessionalization at World Level 320 Conclusion 322 9 Empires of Religion 32 Religion in the Eyes of Contemporaries 32 The View of Recent Historians 32 The Rise of New-Style Religion 33( Modes of Religious Dominion, their Agents and their Limitations 332 Formalizing Religious Authority, Creating "Imperial Religions" 33( Formalizing Doctrines and Rites 34( The Expansion of "Imperial Religions" on their Inner and Outer Frontiers 343 Pilgrimage and Globalization 351 Printing and the Propagation of Religion 357 Religious Building 359 Religion and the Nation 361 Conclusion: The Spirits of the Age 363 10 The World of the Arts and the Imagination 366 Arts and Politics 366 Hybridity and Uniformity in Art across the Globe 367 Leveling Forces: The Market, the Everyday, and the Museum 371 The Arts of the Emerging Nation, 1760-1850 374 Arts and the People, 1850-1914 380 Outside the West: Adaptation and Dependency 381 Architecture: A Mirror of the City 384 Towards World Literature? 385 Conclusion: Arts and Societies 389 Prospect 392 PART IV CHANGE, DECAY, AND CRISIS 393 11 The Reconstitution of Social Hierarchies 395 Change and the Historians 396 Gender and Subordination in the "Liberal Age" 399 Slavery's Indian Summer 402 The Peasant and Rural Laborer as Bond Serf 410 The Peasants that Got Away 415 Why Rural Subordination Survived 417 The Transformation of "Gentries" 418 Challenges to the Gentry 419 Routes to Survival: State Service and Commerce 420 Men of Fewer "Broad Acres" in Europe 424 Surviving Supremacies 426 Continuity or Change? 430 12 The Destruction of Native Peoples and Ecological Depredation 432 What is Meant by "Native Peoples"? 432 Europeans and Native Peoples before c.1820 434 Native Peoples in the "Age of Hiatus" 437 The White Deluge, 1840-1890 439 The Deluge in Practice: New Zealand, South Africa, and the USA 441 Ruling Savage Natures: Recovery and Marginalization 444 13 Conclusion: The Great Acceleration, c.1890-1914 451 Predicting "Things to Come" 451 The Agricultural Depression, Internationalism, and the New Imperialism 455 The New Nationalism 462 The Strange Death of International Liberalism 464 Summing Up: Globalization and Crisis, 1780-1914 468 Global Comparisons' and Connections, 1780-1914: Conclusion 469 What Were the Motors of Change? 473 Power in Global and International Networks 475 Contested Uniformity and Universal Complexity Revisited 478 August 1914 486 Notes 488 Bibliography 514 Index 533Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Revolutions History 18th century, History, Modern 19th century, History, Modern 20th century, Globalization