Table of contents for The birth of the modern world, 1780-1914 : global connections and comparisons / C.A. Bayly.


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List of Illustrations                                        xii
List of Maps and Tables                                     xviii
Series Editor's Preface                                     xix
Acknowledgments                                             xxii
Notes and Conventions                                       xxiii
Introduction                                                  1
The Organization of the Book                                3
Problem One: "Prime Movers" and the Economic Factor         5
Problem Two: Global History and Postmodernism               8
Problem Three: The Continuing "Riddle of the Modern"        9
Conforming to Standards: Bodily Practice                   12
Building Outward from the Body: Communications and
Complexity                                               19
PART I THE END OF THE OLD REGIME                              23
Old Regimes and "Archaic Globalization"                      27
Peasants and Lords                                         27
The Politics of Difference                                 29
towers on the Fringes of States                            36
arbingers of New Political Formations                      40
The Prehistory of "Globalization"                          41
rchaic and Early Modem Globalization                       44
tospect                                                    47
ssages from the Old Regimes to Modernity                    49
The Last "Great Domestication" and "Industrious
Revolutions"                                             49



New Patterns of Afro-Asian Material Culture, Production,
and Trade                                                  55
The Internal and External Limits of Afro-Asian "Industrious
Revolutions"                                               58
Trade, Finance, and Innovation: European Competitive
Advantages                                                 59
The Activist, Patriotic State Evolves                        64
Critical Publics                                            71
The Development of Asian and African Publics                 76
Conclusion: "Backwardness," Lags, and Conjunctures          80
Prospect                                                     82
3 Converging Revolutions, 1780-1820                           86
Contemporaries Ponder the World Crisis                      86
A Summary Anatomy of the World Crisis, 1720-1820             88
Sapping the Legitimacy of the State: From France to China   100
The Ideological Origins of the Modern Left and the Moder State  106
Nationalities versus States and Empires                     112
The Third Revolution: Polite and Commercial Peoples
Worldwide                                                 114
Prospect                                                    120

PART II THE MODERN WORLD IN GENESIS                           121
4 Between World Revolutions, c.1815-1865                      125
Assessing the "Wreck of Nations"                            125
British Maritime Supremacy, World Trade, and
the Revival of Agriculture                                128
Emigration: A Safety Valve?                                 132
The Losers in the "New World Order," 1815-1865              134
Problems of Hybrid Legitimacy: Whose State Was It?          139
The State Gains Strength, but not Enough                    143
Wars of Legitimacy in Asia: A Summary Account               148
Economic and Ideological Roots of the Asian Revolutions     151
The Years of Hunger and Rebellion in Europe, 1848-1851      155
The American Civil War as a Global Event                    161
Convergence or Difference?                                  165
Reviewing the Argument                                      168
5 Industrialization and the New City                          170
Historians, Industrialization, and Cities                   170
The Progress of Industrialization                           172
Poverty and the Absence of Industry                         177
Cities as Centers of Production, Consumption, and Politics  183
The Urban Impact of the Global Crisis, 1780-1820            186
Race and Class in the New Cities                            188
Working-Class Politics                                      191
Worldwide Urban Cultures and their Critics                  194
Conclusion                                                  198



6 Nation, Empire, and Ethnicity, c.1860-1900                 199
Theories of Nationalism                                    199
When was Nationalism?                                      205
Whose Nation?                                              206
Perpetuating Nationalisms: Memories, National Associations,
and Print                                                208
From Community to Nation: The Eurasian Empires             212
Where We Stand with Nationalism                            218
Peoples without States: Persecution or Assimilation?       219
Imperialism and its History: The Late Nineteenth Century   227
Dimensions of the "New Imperialism"                        228
A World of Nation-States?                                  234
The Persistence of Archaic Globalization                   234
From Globalization to Internationalism                     236
Internationalism in Practice                               239
Conclusion                                                 242

PART III STATE AND SOCIETY IN THE AGE OF
IMPERIALISM                                                  245
7 Myths and Technologies of the Modern State                 247
Dimensions of the Moder State                              247
The State and the Historians                               249
Problems of Defining the State                             252
The Modern State Takes Root: Geographical Dimensions       254
Claims to Justice and Symbols of Power                     261
The State's Resources                                      265
The State's Obligations to Society                         271
Tools of the State                                         274
State, Economy, and Nation                                 277
A Balance Sheet: What had the State Achieved?              281
8 The Theory and Practice of Liberalism, Rationalism,
Socialism, and Science                                     284
Contextualizing Intellectual History                       284
The Corruption of the Righteous Republic: A Classic Theme  285
Righteous Republics Worldwide                              288
The Advent of Liberalism and the Market:
Western Exceptionalism?                                  290
Liberalism and Land Reform: Radical Theory and
Conservative Practice                                    295
Free Trade or National Political Economy?                  300
Representing the Peoples                                   302
Secularism and Positivism: Transnational Affinities        307
The Reception of Socialism and its Local Resonances        308
iicience in Global Context                                312
.Trofessionalization at World Level                        320
Conclusion                                                 322



9 Empires of Religion                                      32
Religion in the Eyes of Contemporaries                   32
The View of Recent Historians                            32
The Rise of New-Style Religion                           33(
Modes of Religious Dominion, their Agents and their
Limitations                                            332
Formalizing Religious Authority, Creating "Imperial Religions"  33(
Formalizing Doctrines and Rites                          34(
The Expansion of "Imperial Religions" on their Inner and
Outer Frontiers                                        343
Pilgrimage and Globalization                             351
Printing and the Propagation of Religion                 357
Religious Building                                       359
Religion and the Nation                                  361
Conclusion: The Spirits of the Age                       363
10 The World of the Arts and the Imagination                366
Arts and Politics                                        366
Hybridity and Uniformity in Art across the Globe         367
Leveling Forces: The Market, the Everyday, and the Museum  371
The Arts of the Emerging Nation, 1760-1850               374
Arts and the People, 1850-1914                           380
Outside the West: Adaptation and Dependency              381
Architecture: A Mirror of the City                       384
Towards World Literature?                                385
Conclusion: Arts and Societies                           389
Prospect                                                 392

PART IV CHANGE, DECAY, AND CRISIS                           393
11 The Reconstitution of Social Hierarchies                 395
Change and the Historians                                396
Gender and Subordination in the "Liberal Age"            399
Slavery's Indian Summer                                  402
The Peasant and Rural Laborer as Bond Serf               410
The Peasants that Got Away                               415
Why Rural Subordination Survived                         417
The Transformation of "Gentries"                         418
Challenges to the Gentry                                 419
Routes to Survival: State Service and Commerce           420
Men of Fewer "Broad Acres" in Europe                     424
Surviving Supremacies                                    426
Continuity or Change?                                    430
12 The Destruction of Native Peoples and Ecological
Depredation                                              432
What is Meant by "Native Peoples"?                       432
Europeans and Native Peoples before c.1820               434
Native Peoples in the "Age of Hiatus"                    437



The White Deluge, 1840-1890                             439
The Deluge in Practice: New Zealand, South Africa, and the USA  441
Ruling Savage Natures: Recovery and Marginalization     444
13 Conclusion: The Great Acceleration, c.1890-1914         451
Predicting "Things to Come"                             451
The Agricultural Depression, Internationalism, and
the New Imperialism                                    455
The New Nationalism                                     462
The Strange Death of International Liberalism           464
Summing Up: Globalization and Crisis, 1780-1914         468
Global Comparisons' and Connections, 1780-1914: Conclusion  469
What Were the Motors of Change?                         473
Power in Global and International Networks              475
Contested Uniformity and Universal Complexity Revisited  478
August 1914                                             486
Notes                                                      488
Bibliography                                               514
Index                                                      533





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Revolutions History 18th century, History, Modern 19th century, History, Modern 20th century, Globalization