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Introduction 1. Discovering Scripture in Scripture 1 "In the Beginning . . ."; The Name(s) and Nature of God; The Bible in the Quran; History Begins; The Covenant and the Covenants; Abraham; A Holy Land; Hagar and Ishmael; Ishmaelites and Arabs; Abraham and Ishmael in Mecca; Israelite Tales; Abraham the Builder; The Origins of the Meccan Pilgrimage; The Binding of Isaac (or Ishmael); The Jews in the Quran; Jesus in the Quran; Christians and Christianity in the Quran 2. The Past Remembered 30 What the Arabs Thought, Remembered or Imagined; Mecca before the Prophet; The Holy Place; The Kaaba; The Rituals of the Kaaba; The Meccan Haram; Meccan Paganism; The Quranic Evidence; The Cult Practices of the Arabs; The Jews of Arabia; The Christians of Arabia 3. "And Muhammad Is His Messenger" 51 The Muhammad of History; Hagiography and History; Muhammad: A Life; Imagining Revelation; The Message of Islam; The Opposition; The "Satanic Verses"; Muhammad's Night Journey and Ascension; Muhammad Cleansed, and Rapt; Boycott; The Hegira 4. The Prince of Medina 68 The Medina Accords; The Practice of Islam; Muhammad and the Jews; The Religion of Abraham; The Master of Medina (624-628); Muhammad and the Jews (continued); The Lord of Arabia (628-632); Muhammad and the Jews (concluded); The Wives and Children of the Prophet; The Opening of Mecca; Problems before and after Tabuk; The Last Years (631-632); Collecting the Quran; The Arrangement of the Suras Muhammad and Jesus: An Essay in Comparison 96 5. The Muslim Scripture: The Quran 99 Scripture: A History; Three Sacred Books, Three Peoples of the Book; On Tampering with Scripture; Who Wrote Scripture?; A Different Book; The Other Scriptures; In the Silence after the Seal; Unpacking the Word of God; The Quran Reads Itself: Abrogation, Emendation, Elaboration?; The Miracle of the Quran; History and Scripture; The "Occasions of Revelation"; Plain and Allegorical Exegesis in Islam; The Muslims Struggle with Revelation and Reason; Shiite Tafsir 6. The Umma, Allah's Commonwealth 127 The Creation of the Umma; A Successor to the Prophet; Tensions in the Community; Ali ibn Abi Talib (601-661); A Disputed Succession; The Umayyads (661-750); The Shiite Imamate; Sunnis and Shiites; The Hidden Imam; Political Ismailism: The Fatimids; The Sultanate; The Ottomans and a Universal Caliphate; The End of the Caliphate; Iran as a Shiite State; The Shiite Ulama and the State; The Islamic Republic of Iran 7. God's Way: A Life and a Law for Muslims 156 Muhammad as Moral Exemplar; The Goods of This World; The Tradition; God's Way; Instruction from On High: The Prophetic Reports; From Prophetic Tradition to Law; A Growth Industry; A Skeptical Reaction; Islamic Justice: The Qadi; Islamic Morality and Islamic Jurisprudence; A Society of Law - and Lawyers; Judgments and Opinions; Priests and Rabbis; Jewish Rabbis and Islamic Ulama: A Comparison with a Difference; The Schools; Ijtihad; The Closing of the Gate; Consensus on Moral Matters . Defining and Defending the Community of Believers 186 Identity Markers; Building the Umma: Conversion; The Making of a Muslim; An Arab, and Arabic, Islam; "There Is No Coercion in Religion"; Dhimma and Dhimmis; The Millet System; Defining the Truth; The Umma Divided: Early Muslim Sects and Sectarianism; Innovation and Heresy; Sunnis and Shiites; The Enemy Without: Jihad; Just Wars and Crusades; The Enemy Within: Ibn Taymiyya; Fundamentalists As the Faithful Remnant 9. The Worshipful Acts 216 To Be a Muslim; Women in the Ritual Life of Islam; Muslim Prayer; Friday Prayer and the Mosque; The Hajj; To Mount Arafat and Back; Intercalation Prohibited; The Enshrinement of Jerusalem; The Distant Shrine; The Christian Assault on Jerusalem; Muslim Jerusalem in the Middle Ages; The Pious Visit al-Quds; Muslim Devotions; The Friends of God; The Passion and the Death of Husayn; Islam and the Graven Image; The Word as Decoration 10. This World and the Next 245 The Beginnings of Muslim Asceticism; The Sufi Way; The Path to God; Salvation; The End and What Follows; End Time Scenarios; The Muslim Dead; The Cosmology of the Other World; A Heavenly Journey; The Quranic Eschaton; Intercession in Islam; The Vision of God and Other Rewards of Paradise; Are the Martyrs in Paradise? A Savior Returns; Shiite Messianism; The Mahdi Reflections after a Breakfast 273 Index 277Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Islam Relations Christianity, Christianity and other religions Islam, Islam Relations Judaism, Judaism Relations Islam, Islam Origin, Islam Essence, genius, nature