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Foreword and Acknowledgements ix Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii Introduction: Development and Social Change 1 Towards A Globalization Perspective 1 Origin of this Study and Methodological and Epistemological Concerns 3 Organization of the Book 6 1 The Dialectics of Globalization and Development 9 The Problematic of Globalization and Development 10 Globalization as Epochal Shift and Systemic Change 10 From a World Economy to a Global Economy 13 Beyond Nation-State Paradigms: Towards a New Transnational Studies 20 Towards a New Conceptualization of Development 28 Contours of Global Capitalist Society 35 Global Class Formation: From National to Transnational Classes 35 Transnationalization of the State 42 Transnational Hegemony and a Global Social Structure of Accumulation 48 Conceptualizing Global-Regional-Local Change 55 Transnational Processes and Transitions to Global Capitalism 56 A Globalization Model of Third World Transitions 56 A Model of Transnational Processes 61 2 The Politics of Globalization and the Transitions in Central America 63 Central America as a Site of Transnational Processes 64 Central America's Integration into the Global Economy and Society 64 Social Structures and Social Forces in Central America: An Overview of the Transitions 66 Divergence and Convergence in Paths to Globalization: Country Case Studies 71 Nicaragua: From Revolution to Counterrevolution 71 El Salvador: Transition Under Direct US Tutelage 87 Guatemala: The Paradoxes of the "Counterinsurgency State" 102 Honduras: A Divergent Route to Globalization 118 Costa Rica: From "Exceptionalism" to Globalization 132 3 The New Transnational Model in Central America: I: Incorporation into the Global Economy 147 Central America in the World Economy Prior to Globalization 149 The Crisis of Central America's Post-WWII Social Structure of Accumulation 149 Central America's Emerging Profile in the Global Economy 156 The Fourth Period of Central American Rearticulation and Expansion 156 From ISI to the Maquiladoras 159 Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports 174 Tourism and Hospitality 189 The Export of Labor and Remittances 203 Conclusions 209 4 The New Transnational Model in Central America: II: Incorporation into Global Society 214 Restructuring the State and Civil Society 214 The Rise of Transnational Fractions and "Technopols" in Central America 214 From the "Developmental State" to the "Neo-Liberal State" and the New Hegemony of Capital 217 Transnationalization of Civil Society in Central America 222 The NGO Phenomenon in Central America 226 Structural Adjustment in Central America: Commodification, Financial Liberalization, and Proletarianization 235 Financial Liberalization and the New Financial Elite 236 Neo-Liberal Social Policies: The Privatization of Social Reproduction 244 Rural Transformation, Depeasantization, and Urbanization 252 Transnational Social Structure 259 Restructuring the Central American Labor Force: Informalization and the New Capital-Labor Relation 259 Transnational Migration 270 Women and Transnational Processes: Global and Central American Dimensions 283 5 The Contradictions of Global Capitalism and the Future of Central America 295 A New Cycle of Capitalist Development in Central America? 295 Can Capitalist Expansion be Sustained? 297 The Viability of the Transnational Model 300 Global Capitalism and Social Exclusion in Central America 303 Maldevelopment for Whom in Central America? 308 The Future of Popular Struggle in Central America and in Global Society 312 Global Polarization and the Crisis of Social Reproduction 312 The Illusion of "Peace and Democracy" in Central America 315 A Long March Through Civil Society? The Prospects for Counter-Hegemony 319 Final Considerations 325 Whither the Sociology of Development? From a Territorial to a Social Conception of Development 325 An Afterword on Researching Globalization and Social Change 330 Notes 333 Index 387Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Social change Central America, Central America Social conditions 1979-Central America Economic conditions 1979-Structural adjustment (Economic policy) Central America, Central America Foreign economic relations, Globalization