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List of Figures and Tables ix Acronyms and Abbreviations xi 1 Introduction 1 2 Trade Unions and Industrial Relations in the Soviet System 8 The formation of the soviet trade unions 8 After Lenin: the fate of the unions 14 The structure and functions of soviet trade unions 17 The regulation of the employment relationship 22 Trade unions and the labour collective under perestroika 26 The reform of the trade unions under perestroika 30 Post-soviet trade unions in search of a role 33 3 Trade Unions and Politics in Post-Soviet Russia 36 Trade unions and politics in the Yeltsin era 38 The challenge of Yeltsin's reforms 38 FNPR in the confrontation between Yeltsin and Parliament 41 FNPR's change of line 42 Trade unions during thefirst Duma (1994-6) 44 The unions in the 1995 election 47 Lobbying the second Duma (1996-9) 50 The 1999 Duma election 55 The 2000 Presidential election and FNPR under Putin 60 The campaign against the Unified Social Tax and the Labour Code 62 FNPR under threat 68 Conclusion 71 4 The Structure of Russian Trade Unions 73 International Relations of the Russia trade unions 75 FNPR 76 The branch unions 78 Regional trade union organisations 81 Trade union membership 86 Membership dues 88 Trade union property 90 The trade union apparatus 93 Who are the trade union officers? 95 Trade union expenditure 98 5 The Legal Framework of Industrial Relations 101 Post-soviet changes to the legal framework: an overview 103 The Russian Constitution 105 The Russian Labour Code 106 The 2001 Labour Code 111 The Law on Trade Unions 114 Trade union rights and status 117 The unions as a privileged interlocutor with government 119 Rights in relation to management 121 The Law on Collective Bargaining and Agreements 124 The Law on Collective Labour Disputes 127 Conclusion 131 6 Social Partnership 132 The origins and meaning of 'sotsial'noe partnerstvo' 132 Social partnership at the Federal level: the history of the Russian Tripartite Commission and the General Agreement 138 The social partners at national level 145 The enforcement of agreements 147 Social partnership at the branch level: branch tariff agreements 148 Social partnership at the regional level 152 The formal aims of regional social partnership 154 Who are the social partners? 154 The content of the regional agreements 159 Coverage and enforcement of regional agreements 168 The regional tripartite commission 170 Relations with the regional legislature 172 Social partnership at the sub-regional level 173 What is the point of social partnership? 174 7 The Functions of Russian Trade Unions 179 Wage determination 179 Employment protection 182 Social protection and the enforcement of labour rights 184 Support for the negotiation of collective agreements 185 Training for trade union activists 186 Provision of legal advice 188 Action through the courts 190 Conflict resolution 192 Monitoring the observance of health and safety and labour legislation 193 Informational-analytical work 196 Social welfare and mass-cultural work 197 Organisation and recruitment 200 8 Trade Unions and Industrial Relations in the Enterprise 203 Privatisation, the enterprise director and the labour.collective 203 Globalisation and the collapse of the Russian economy 204 Primary organisations after the collapse of communism 207 Trade union organisation 212 Trade union facilities 216 Trade union activities 217 Collective agreements 220 Failure to conclude a collective agreement 222 Negotiation of the collective agreement 225 Content of the collective agreement 228 Fulfilment and enforcement of the collective agreement 234 Relations with the administration 237 Relations with members 241 Relations with regional trade union bodies 246 Conflict 248 Individual labour disputes 249 Collective labour conflicts 252 Militant trade union organisations 257 Do Russian workers need trade unions? 259 9 The Future of Russian Trade Unionism 262 The limitations of social partnership 262 The vicious circle of conciliation 265 Hierarchy and trade union democracy 267 The demobilisation of the membership 268 Russian trade unionism in comparative perspective 270 The future of Russian trade unionism 273 Bibliography 277 Index 285Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: