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1 Introduction 1 Regina Scheyvens and Donovan Storey Purpose 1 Concerns over appropriateness of doing fieldwork in the Third World 2 Responses to the crisis of legitimacy facing Western researchers 4 The potential value of research with 'others' 5 'The field' 8 Scope and limitations 10 Format 11 Overview 12 PART I METHODOLOGY 15 2 Designing Development Research 17 Warwick E. Murray and John Overton Introduction 17 Design - the ideal field research project 19 Logistics - proposing and planning 29 Research practice - between rigidity and flexibility 32 Conclusion 32 3 Using Quantitative Techniques 37 John Overton and Peter van Diermen Introduction 37 What is quantitative data? 38 What techniques should be used? 39 Sampling 42 How can data be analysed? 44 Limitations and pitfalls 50 Conclusion 54 4 Qualitative Research 57 Dan Brockington and Sian Sullivan Introduction 57 The popularity and perils of PRA 60 Ethnography: participant observation, oral testimony and the production of texts 65 On subjectivity and experience: phenomenological and embodiment approaches 68 Qualitative not quantitative? 70 Conclusion 72 PART II PREPARATION FOR THE FIELD 75 5 Practical Issues 77 Helen Leslie and Donovan Storey Introduction 77 Funding 77 Establishing contacts 79 Research 'permission': documentation and gatekeepers 81 Health and safety 83 Places to stay, or not to stay 87 Where to go and when to go 89 Packing 91 Conclusion 93 6 Personal Issues 97 Henry Scheyvens and Barbara Nowak Introduction 97 Motivation and selection of research topic 99 Creating a good impression 100 Desirable personal traits 102 The 'human element' in making judgements 106 Preparing for discomfort and depression 107 Families and partners in the field 109 Conclusion 114 PART III IN THE FIELD 117 7 Entering the Field 119 Helen Leslie and Donovan Storey The first day 120 The morning after 122 Culture shock 122 Behaviour during fieldwork 128 Working with others: research assistants 131 Language issues 135 Conclusion 137 8 Ethical Issues 139 Regina Scheyvens, Barbara Nowak and Henry Scheyvens Introduction 139 Ethics in research 140 Official ethics procedures 141 Power relations between researchers and their informants 149 Gatekeepers 153 Reciprocity 155 Truth and deception 158 Sex and sexuality 161 Safety of the researcher and responsibilities to self 163 Conclusion 165 9 Working with Marginalised, Vulnerable or Privileged Groups 167 Regina Scheyvens, Henry Scheyvens and Warwick E. Murray Introduction 167 Researching women 169 Researching children and youths 173 Researching minority ethnic groups 176 Researching the very poor 179 Researching the elite and powerful 182 Advocacy and activism 187 Conclusion 191 PART IV LEAVING THE FIELD 195 10 Anything to Declare? The Politics and Practicalities of Leaving the Field 197 Sara Kindon and Julie Cupples Introduction 197 Reasons for leaving 199 Factors influencing experiences of leaving 201 Feelings/emotions associated with leaving 202 Leaving strategies and ethical responsibilities 206 Practical concerns 211 Conclusion 213 11 Returning to University and Writing the Field 217 Julie Cupples and Sara Kindon Introduction 217 Managing shifting feelings and identities about returning to university 219 Writing and representing 222 Negotiating competing responsibilities: participants, audiences and careers 227 Returning to the field 229 Conclusion 230 12 Afterword 233 Donovan Storey and Regina Scheyvens Reflections on the value of fieldwork 233 Key themes 234 The future of development research 235Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Social sciences Research Developing countries, Social sciences Field work, Social sciences Research Methodology