Table of contents for Gay and lesbian rights in the United States : a documentary history / edited by Walter L. Williams and Yolanda Retter.


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Series Foreword                                       xvii
Acknowledgments                                        xix
Introduction by Walter L. Williams                     xxi
Timeline                                            xxxvii
PART I: THE CLASH OF RELIGIONS                               1
Document 1: Navajo Sacredness for Nadleeh                    3
Document 2: Illinois Indian Transgender (1677)               5
Document 3: Miami Indian Sodomy (1702)                       5
Document 4: Native American Transgendered Females            7
Document 5: Lakota Respect for Two-Spirit People (1982)      8
Document 6: The Bible: Sodom and Gomorrah                   10
Document 7: The Bible: The Abominations of Leviticus        12
Document 8: The Bible: Ruth and Naomi                       15
Document 9: The Bible: David and Jonathan                   15
Document 10: The Bible: Jesus                               17
Document 11: The Bible: Paul                                19
Document 12: Spaniards' Suppression of Sodomites (1519-1540s)  22 
Document 13: Virginia Sodomy Law (1610)                     23
Document 14: The Execution of Richard Cornish (1624-1625)   23



Document 15: William Plaine Executed in New England for 
         Teaching Masturbation (1646)                           24
Document 16: African American Jan Creoli Killed and Burned 
         in Dutch Colony (1646)                                     25
Document 17: Sara Norman and Mary Hammon Accused of Lewd Behavior (1649)       25
Document 18: New Haven Law Prohibits Lesbianism (1655)      26
Document 19: Puritan Sermon on The Cry of Sodom (1674)      27
Document 20: Pirates in the Caribbean (1724)                30
Document 21: Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765)     31
Document 22: Spanish Priests Condemn Transgendered Yuma Indians (1775)    32
Document 23: Spanish Colonial Suppression of Sodomites in California (1775-1777)  32
PART II: LIFE, LIBERTY, AND THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
A HOMOPHILE IDENTITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1775-1950                      35
Document 24: United States Declaration of Independence (1776)  38
Document 25: United States Constitution and Bill of Rights (1791)  40
Document 26: Bachelor Friendships of the Nineteenth Century  42
Document 27: National Women's Rights Convention (1852)      43
Document 28: Walt Whitman and the Homoerotic Poetry of Democracy (1860) 45
Document 29: Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution (1868)  46
Document 30: Walt Whitman's Democratic Vistas (1870)        46
Document 31: Females Passing as Men (1894)                  48
Document 32: Anthony Comstock Seeks to Imprison Inverts (1900)  49
Document 33: United States Navy Entraps Homosexuals (1919)  50
Document 34: Society for Human Rights (1924)                51
Document 35: The Well of Loneliness (1929)                  55
Document 36: Sigmund Freud on Homosexuality (1935)          56
Document 37: Lesbian Challenges Georgia's Sodomy Law (1939)  58
Document 38: Lesbians in the Women's Army Corps (1945)      59
Document 39: Psychiatrists Oppose Homosexual Rights Laws (1945)  60



Document 40: Vice Versa, America's First Lesbian Magazine (1947)  61
Document 41: Vice Versa Predictions (1947)                   63
Document 42: Employment of Homosexuals and Other Sex Perverts (1950)    65
PART III: CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES: THE MAKING OF A
GAY AND LESBIAN MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES, 1950-1977        67
Document 43: Formation of the Mattachine Society (1950)      72
Document 44: Mattachine Society Meetings (1950)              73
Document 45: Mattachine Protests Police Entrapment (1952)    74 
Document 46: Formation of ONE, Inc. (1952)                   76
Document 47: Jim Kepner's First Mattachine Meeting (1953)    77 
Document 48: Tampa Lesbian Bar Raid (1953)                   78
Document 49: Daughters of Bilitis (1955)                     79
Document 50: Founding of ONE Institute of Homophile Studies (1956)           80
Document 51: Gay Bashing in Massachusetts (1956)             82
Document 52: Allen Ginsberg and the Beatniks (1956)          83
Document 53: Crittenden Report on Homosexuality in the United States Navy (1957)   85
Document 54: Evelyn Hooker Psychological Research (1957)     86
Document 55: Supreme Court Rules ONE Is Not Obscene (1958)   89 
Document 56: Mattachine National Convention (1959)           92
Document 57: A Homosexual Bill of Rights (1961)              93
Document 58: Jose Sarria Runs for San Francisco City Council (1961)  96 
Document 59: ACLU Begins Gay Rights Cases (1963)             97
Document 60: Bayard Rustin, Martin Luther King, and the March on Washington (1963)  99
Document 61: Mohave Indian Two-Spirit Person (1964)         100
Document 62: Frank Kameny Resists Job Firing (1964)         102
Document 63: Mattachine Pickets the White House (1965)      103
Document 64: San Francisco Activism (1965)                  105
Document 65: Lesbian Activism and The Ladder (1966)         107



Document 66: Barbara Gittings and Frank Kameny Push the Pentagon.(1966)        109
Document 67: Supreme Court Excludes and Deports Homosexual Immigrants (1967)   110
Document 68: PRIDE and The Advocate Magazine (1967)         111
Document 69: Rev. Troy Perry Founds the Metropolitan Community Church (1968)    113
Document 70: Homophile Action League (1968)                 115
Document 71: A Gay Manifesto (1969)                         116
Document 72: Stonewall Riots in New York (1969)            118
Document 73: Gay Liberation Front and Gay Activists Alliance (1970) 120 
Document 74: Gay Lib Zaps Psychologists (1970)             121
Document 75: Congress to Unite Women (1970)                122
Document 76: The Woman Identified Woman (1970)             123
Document 77: NOW Endorses Lesbian Rights (1971)            124
Document 78: Lesbian Nation (1972)                          126
Document 79: Democratic Party Convention (1972)            127
Document 80: Multiple Struggles (1973)                     128
Document 81: Dr. Howard Brown Comes Out (1973)             129
Document 82: National Gay Task Force Founded (1973)        130
Document 83: Lambda Legal Defense Fund (1973)              131
Document 84: Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (1973)  132 
Document 85: American Psychiatric Association Vote (1974)  133 
Document 86: Lesbian Child Custody Rights (1974)           135
Document 87: Lesbians as the Vanguard of Feminism (1975)   136 
Document 88: Gay Asians (1975)                              137
Document 89: Municipal Elections Committee of Los Angeles (1976)             138
PART IV: BACKLASH: THE REACTION TO GAY
AND LESBIAN PROGRESS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1977-1987               139
Document 90: Anita Bryant Defeats Miami Gay Rights Ordinance (1977)       143
Document 91: Gay Men Harm Society (1978)                   144
Document 92: Mormon Suppression of Homosexuality (1978)    145



Document 93: Harvey Milk on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors (1978)         149
Document 94: Gay Is Not Good (1979)                         151
Document 95: Homosexuality Is Unnatural (1979)              152
Document 96: March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights (1979)         153
Document 97: Asian American Lesbian Speaks at the Third World
Lesbian/Gay Conference (1979)                  154
Document 98: A Gay Priest Speaks Out on Fundamentalists (1980)          155
Document 99: Anita Bryant's Startling Reversal (1980)       157
Document 100: Democratic Party and Gay Rights (1980)        158
Document 101: Congressman Bauman on Opposition to Gay Rights (1980)       159
Document 102: AIDS Strikes Gay Men (1981)                   161
Document 103: Jerry Falwell Fund-Raising Letter (1981)      162
Document 104: Pope John Paul II on Controlling the Body (1981)  163 
Document 105: Wisconsin Antidiscrimination Law (1981)       163
Document 106: Violence against Lesbian (1982)               164
Document 107: Merle Woo Challenges the University of California (1982)   166
Document 108: Simultaneity of Oppression (1983)             167
Document 109: Lesbians of Color Conference (1983)           168
Document 110: Police Abuse against Gays (1983)              169
Document 111: The Death of Charlie Howard (1984)            170
Document 112: Are Gay Rights Right? (1985)                  172
Document 113: Armistead Maupin's "Design for Living" (1985)  173 
Document 114: AIDS and Gay Rights (1986)                    175
Document 115: Bowers v. Hardwick Sodomy Law Case (1986)     177
Document 116: Catholic Condemnation of Homosexuality (1986)  180 
Document 117: Homophobia in the Black Community (1986)      181
Document 118: Antigay Violence (1987)                       182
Document 119: AIDS as God's Punishment (1987)               183



PART V: QUEER AMERICA: THE ACCEPTANCE OF SEXUAL AND 
GENDER DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1987-2000                    187
Document 120: ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) (1987)  192 
Document 121: National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights (1987)        194
Document 122: Old Lesbians Organizing for Change (1987)     195
Document 123: Randy Burs-Gay American Indians (1988)        196
Document 124: AIDS Should Not Prevent Sexual Pleasure (1988)  197 
Document 125: National Coming Out Day (1988)                198
Document 126: Congressman William Dannemeyer Opposes Gay Rights (1989)    199
Document 127: Jewish Rabbi Acceptance of Gay and Lesbian Rights (1989)    201
Document 128: Queer Nation (1990)                           202
Document 129: Bisexuals and Gay Rights (1991)               203
Document 130: Gays in the Republican Party (1991)           204
Document 131: Democratic Party Progay Rights (1992)         205
Document 132: Kentucky v. Wasson (1992)                     206
Document 133: Colorado Amendment 2 (1992)                   207
Document 134: Oregon Measure 9 (1992)                       208
Document 135: Lesbian Appointed to Federal Government (1993)  210 
Document 136: Lesbians and Gay Men in the Military (1993)   213 
Document 137: Military Working Group on Homosexuality (1993)  214 
Document 138: Barry Goldwater on Gays in the Military (1993)  215 
Document 139: Hawai'i Same-Sex Marriage Court Case (1993)   216 
Document 140: March on Washington (1993)                    221
Document 141: Deaf, Black, and Gay: Comparative Rights (1993)  223 
Document 142: Impact of Gays on the Media (1994)            224
Document 143: PFLAG Supports Gay and Lesbian Children (1994)  226 
Document 144: Catholic Condemnation of Homosexuality (1994)  227 
Document 145: Ex-Gays Condemn Gay Rights (1994)             228
Document 146: Bisexual Young Woman Speaks Out (1994)        229
Document 147: Sharon Bottoms Child Custody Court Case (1994)  230 
Document 148: Japanese American Citizens League Supports Legalizing 
Same-Sex Marriage (1994)                        232



Document 149: Lesbianas Unidas (1994)                       234
Document 150: Exposing the Religious Right (1995)           235
Document 151: The Lesbian Avengers (1995)                   237
Document 152: Brandon Teena Murder Trial (1996)             239
Document 153: Romer v. Evans (1996)                         240
Document 154: Defense of Marriage Act (1996)                241
Document 155: Galluccio-Holden Adoption Lawsuit (1997)      244
Document 156: Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (1997) 245 
Document 157: Internet Publication for Gay and Lesbian Rights (1997) 247 
Document 158: Intersex Society of North America (1997)      248
Document 159: Transgender Liberation (1998)                 249
Document 160: Southern Baptist Convention Condemns Homosexuality (1998)      250
Document 161: Focus on the Family (1998)                    252
Document 162: Hawai'i Voters Reject Same-Sex Marriage (1998)  253 
Document 163: Mrs. Shepard Speaks in Support of Hate Crimes Laws (1998)     259
Document 164: Hate Crimes Laws Won't Stop Hate (1998)       259
Document 165: Coming Out (1998)                             260
Document 166: Cyberactivism (1999)                          262
Document 167: Stan Baker v. State of Vermont (1999)         264
Document 168: Overturning State Sodomy Laws (1999)          267
Document 169: Dale v. Boy Scouts of America (1999)          269
Document 170: Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000)          271
Document 171: Transgender Rights and the ACLU (2000)        276
Document 172: Laura Schlessinger Radio Show (2000)          276
Document 173: Suicide of a Gay Mormon (2000)                279
Document 174: Antigay Hate Crimes in High Schools (2000)    280 
Document 175: Millennium March on Washington (2000)         282
Conclusion                                             285
Glossary                                               289
List of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Organizations  291 
Selected Bibliography                                  295
Index                                                  301





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Gay rights United States History Sources, Gay liberation movement United States History Sources, Homosexuality United States Public opinion, Homosexuality Law and legislation United States, Public opinion United States, United States Politics and government, United States Social policy