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Boxes and Table /viii Acknowledgements /ix Abbreviations and Acronyms /xi Introduction: Globalization and Infant Feeding 1 1 Regulation of Transnational Corporations: A Historical Perspective 6 National regulation of corporations /6 International regulation of transnational corporations /8 De-regulation and re-regulation worldwide /15 2 Democratic Global Governance: Regulation of the Corporate Sector 28 Governance and the 'rule of law' /28 Key questions on regulation /31 Context and relationships of power in international regulation /32 3 'Commerciogenic Malnutrition': The 'Bottle Baby Disease' 44 The birth of a market /45 Marketing methods/47 'Dialogues' with no effects /49 The industry under public scrutiny /51 Shareholder resolutions, a consumer boycott and a US Senate hearing /53 WHO and UNICEF become involved /55 Citizen networks and corporate counter-actions /57 4 Formulation and Adoption of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes 60 A breakthrough in the debate /60 Conflicts in developing the Code /61 The USA's volte-face /66 Today's question about yesterday's trade-offs /67 5 Implementing the Code 70 Obstacle 1; legacies of the process of Code formulation and adoption /71 Obstacle 2: industry interpretations of the Code /77 Obstacle 3: changes in political climate /79 Moving Code implementation forward /81 A multi-pronged approach /82 Human rights: the avenue of the future? /87 Overcoming obstacles to Code implementation /90 6 Corporate Conduct: Socially Responsible Marketing? 98 Statements and questions /99 Summary of the Code's provisions/100 Corporate practice /103 HIV and the regulation of the marketing of breast-milk substitutes /107 Words versus deeds /117 7 Corporate Conduct: Acceptance of Outside Regulation? 123 Interference with national Code implementation /124 Issues for effective national Code implementation /136 8 Corporate Conduct: Managing International Issues Engineering of Consent 144 Corporate PR: a tool of power /146 Infant feeding and corporate PR /147 Issues management/engineering of consent /149 'Dialogues' or intelligence-gathering, image transfer, diversion and division? /159 Ruling by consent? A new phase of industry lobbying /162 Roundtable discussions and Code implementation /165 Industry's reaction to the WHO initiative /166 Corporate engineering of consent and democratic global governance /169 Regaining transparency and space for democratic debate /170 9 Civil Society and the Code 178 What are civil society organizations? /179 IBFAN: a transnational citizen action network /181 The impact of IBFAN /187 Codes as means of raising public awareness and debates /191 Corporate watchdog groups and the state /193 Civil society organizations and the regulation of corporations /197 10 International Regulation of TNCs: Issues Raised by the Infant Food Debate 202 The regulation of marketing of breast-milk substitutes: selected conclusions /203 International regulation of TNCs: issues for further consideration /206 Regulation and global democratic decision-making /209 Useful Websites 211 Bibliography 212 Index 233Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Social responsibility of business, Business ethics, International business enterprises Management Moral and ethical aspects, International business enterprises Management Citizen participation, Baby foods Marketing Case studies