Table of contents for Galen on the brain : anatomical knowledge and physiological speculation in the second century AD / by Julius Rocca.


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                          PART ONE
                     THE FRAMEWORK OF
            GALEN'S ANATOMICAL METHODOLOGY

Chapter One: The development of the hegemonic concept:
  the medical and philosophical background
  1.1   Introduction    ........................................ ......  17
  1.2   Presocratic knowledge of the brain       ............................  21
  1.3   The brain in the Hippocratic Corpus         ........................  24
  1.4   Aristotle on the brain and the heart ..........................  28
  1.5   Hellenistic medicine and the hegemonikon      ....................  31
  1.6   The second century AD: a recovery of anatomical
      knowledge     ........................................ ......    42
  1.7   Conclusion ........................................  ......     46

Chapter Two: Galen's methods and materials for the
  investigation of the brain
  2.1   Introduction    ........................................ .......  49
  2.2   Galen's claims for anatomical demonstration         ............  50
  2.3   Galen's pneumatic physiology       ......................................  59
  2.4   Galen's empirical substrate: animal material ..............     67
  2.5   Conclusion ........................................   ......    77



                           PART TWO
               THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE BRAIN

Chapter Three: The exposure and dissection of the brain
  3.1  Introduction  ..............................................81
  3.2  The parts of the brain: orientationand
       nomenclature  .............................................. 82
  3.3    The cranial cavity and the anatomical exposure of
       the    brain   ........................................................................  86
  3.4    The meninges (i): the dura mater and the dural
       foldings ...........   .........................................   ......   91
  3.5  The meninges (ii): the dural venous sinuses..................94
  3.6    The meninges (iii): the venous sinuses and the torcular
       Herophili    ........... ........................................   ....    96
  3.7    The meninges (iv): the pia mater ......................................   104
  3.8    Ventricular protection        and support: the brain's
       deeper bodies  ..............................................106
  3.9  Conclusion .............................................. 112

Chapter Four: The anatomy of the ventricular system
  4.1  Introduction  ..............................................113
  4.2  Ventricular symmetry: a constructed harmony   ..........114
  4.3  An  overview of Galen's ventricular system................116
  4.4    The    anterior ventricles      ..................................................  119
  4.5    The    middle ventricle        ....................................................  135
  4.6    The    "duct of Erasistratus" and the vermiform
       epiphysis      ........................................................................  151
  4.7  The  "cavity of Herophilus": the fourth ventricle......160
  4.8  Conclusion  ..............................................167


                           PART THREE
                  A PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN

Chapter Five: A methodology of ventricular function
   5.1  Introduction  .................    ..............................171
   5.2  Galen's method  of ventricular experimentation..........172
   5.3 The effects of pressure: chance and the youth from
        Smyrna     ........................................................      181



  5.4  Pressure as an experimental technique ......................187
  5.5    The effects of ventricular incision         ................................  192
  5.6    The soul and the ventricles ..........................................  i96
  5.7    Conclusion    ......................................................................  198

Chapter Six: The elaboration of psychic pneuma
  6.1 Introduction  .............................................201
  6.2  The anatomy of the retiform plexus  ..........................202
  6.3  The physiology of the retiformplexus: Galen's
      "paradigm" for pneumatic elaboration ........................208
  6.4  The anatomy and physiology of the choroid plexus  .. 219
  6.5  The experiment of carotid ligation..............................224
  6.6  The limits of Galenic pneumatic physiology ..............235
  6.7    Conclusion    ......................................................................  237

Chapter Seven: Conclusion            .....................................................  239

Appendix One
The doctrine of ventricular localisation            ..................................  245

Appendix Two
Galenism and the status of the retiformplexus......................249

Glossary of Anatomical Terms              ................................................  255

Bibliography ...................................................261

Index of Sources and List of Editions              ....................................  283
General index  ................................   ...  ...........299





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Galen, Brain Anatomy, Neurophysiology