Table of contents for Theory and reality : an introduction to the philosophy of science / Peter Godfrey-Smith.


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     Preface  xi
     A Note for Those Teaching with the Book  xiii

1  Introduction * 1
     1.1 Setting Out
     1.2 The Scope of the Theory z
     1.3 What Kind of Theory? 5
     1.4 Three Answers, or Pieces of an Answer 8
     1.5 Historical Interlude: A Sketch of the Scientific Revolution 13
         Further Reading 8

2    Logic Plus Empiricism * 19
     2.1 The Empiricist Tradition 9
     2.2 The Vienna Circle 22
     2.3 Central Ideas of Logical Positivism 25
     2.4 Problems and Changes 30
     2.5 Logical Empiricism 34
     2.6 On the Fall of Logical Empiricism 37
         Further Reading 37

3    Induction and Confirmation * 39
     3.1 The Mother of All Problems 39
     3.2 Induction, Deduction, Confirmation, and Explanatory Inference 40
     3.3 The Ravens Problem 46
     3.4 Goodman's "New Riddle of Induction" 50
         Further Reading 56

4    Popper: Conjecture and Refutation  57
     4.1 Popper's Unique Place in the Philosophy of Science 57
     4.2 Popper's Theory of Science 57




     4.3 Popper on Scientific Change 6x
     4.4 Objections to Popper on Falsification 63
     4.5 Objections to Popper on Confirmation 67
     4.6 Further Comments on the Demarcation Problem 71
         Further Reading 74

5    Kuhn and Normal Science  75
     5.1 "The Paradigm Has Shifted" 75
     5.2 Paradigms: A Closer Look 77
     5.3 Normal Science 79
     5.4 Anomaly and Crisis 8z
     5.5 Wrap-up of Normal Science 84
         Further Reading 86

6    Kuhn and Revolutions * 87
     6.1 Considerable Upset 87
     6.2 Revolutions and Their Aftermath 88
     6.3 Incommensurability, Relativism, and Progress 9
     6.4 The X-Rated "Chapter X" 96
     6.5 Final Thoughts on Kuhn 98
         Further Reading ioi

7    Lakatos, Laudan, Feyerabend, and Frameworks * 102
     7.1 After Structure oz
     7.2 Lakatos and Research Programs I03
     7.3 Laudan and Research Traditions o8
     7.4 Anything Goes IIo
     7.5 An Argument from History That Haunts Philosophy  13
     7.6 Pluralism and the Ramblings of Madmen  15
     7.7 Taking Stock: Frameworks and Two-Process Theories of Science 117
         Further Reading 121

8    The Challenge from Sociology of Science * 122
     8.1 Beyond Philosophy? 122
     8.2 Robert Merton and the "Old" Sociology of Science izz
     8.3 The Rise of the Strong Program I25
     8.4 Leviathan and Latour z28
         Further Reading 135

9    Feminism and Science Studies  136
     9.1 "Science Is Political" 136
     9.2 The Man of Reason 137



     9.3 The Case of Primatology 39
     9.4 Feminist Epistemology I41
     9.5 Science Studies, the Science Wars, and the Sokal Hoax 144
         Further Reading 148

10   Naturalistic Philosophy in Theory and Practice * 149
     10.1 What Is Naturalism? 149
     10.2 Quine, Dewey, and Others I50
     1O.3 The Theory-Ladenness of Observation I55
          Further Reading 62

11   Naturalism and the Social Structure of Science  163
     11.1 Science as a Process 163
     11.2 Kitcher and the Division of Scientific Labor 167
     11.3 Social Structure and Empiricism 69
          Further Reading 172

12   Scientific Realism * 173
     12.1 Strange Debates 173
     12.2 Approaching Scientific Realism 74
     12.3 A Statement of Scientific Realism 174
     12.4 Challenges from Traditional Empiricism 80
     12.5 Metaphysical Constructivism 18i
     12.6 Van Fraassen's View 183
     12.7 Representation, Models, and Truth (Optional Section) 186
           Further Reading 89

13   Explanation * 190
      13.1 Knowing Why I90
      13.2 The Rise and Fall of the Covering Law Theory of Explanation I9I
      13.3 Causation, Unification, and More 194
      13.4 Laws and Causes (Optional Section) zoo
           Further Reading zoI

14   Bayesianism and Modern Theories of Evidence * 202
      14.1 New Hope zoz
      14.2 Understanding Evidence with Probability 203
      14.3 The Subjectivist Interpretation of Probability zo5
      14.4 Assessing Bayesianism zo8
      14.5 Scientific Realism and Theories of Evidence zIo
      14.6 Procedural Naturalism (Optional Section) 214
           Further Reading 217



15   Empiricism, Naturalism, and Scientific Realism? . 219
     15.1 A Muddy Paste? 29
     15.z The Apparent Tensions 2o0
     15.3 Empiricism Reformed 221
     15.4 A Last Challenge 227
     15.5 The Future 230

     Glossary * 233
     References  243
     Index * 255





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Science Philosophy