Table of contents for The basics of chemistry / Richard Myers.


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   Preface                                                             xiii
   Acknowledgments                                                      xv
1 Introduction: Chemistry and Its Divisions                          1
   Introduction                                                      1
   The Scientific Enterprise                                         2
   What Is Chemistry?                                                3
   Divisions of Chemistry                                            4
2  A Brief History of Chemistry                                      7
   Introduction                                                      7
   Early History                                                     7
   Greek Science                                                     9
   Alchemy                                                              11
   Chemistry in the Middle Ages                                         13
3  The Birth of Modern Chemistry                                        17
   Introduction                                                         17
   The Beginnings of Modern Chemistry                                   17
   The Phlogiston Theory                                                19
   Pneumatic Chemistry                                                  20
   Lavoisier                                                            25
4  The Atom                                                             31
   Introduction                                                         31
   The Law of Definite Proportions                                      31
   Dalton and the Birth of the Atomic Theory                            33
   Gay-Lussac and Avogadro's Hypothesis                                 34
   The Divisible Atom                                                   35
   Atomic Structure                                                     38



   Quantum Mechanics                                                 40
   A Modern View of the Atom                                         44
   Atomic Mass, Atomic Numbers, and Isotopes                         45
   Ions                                                              45
   Summary                                                           46
5  Atoms Combined                                                    49
   Introduction                                                      49
   Mixtures, Compounds, and Molecules                                49
   Naming Elements                                                   50
   Naming Compounds                                                  51
   Writing Chemical Formulas                                         54
   Chemical Reactions                                                54
   Types of Reactions                                                55
   From Molecules to Moles                                           56
6  Elements and the Periodic Table                                   61
   Introduction                                                      61
   Discovery of the Elements                                         61
   The Modern Periodic Table                                         64
   The Main Group Elements                                           64
   d and f Block Elements                                            67
   Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals                                 67
   Periodic Problems                                                 67
   Summary                                                           69
7  Chemical Bonding                                                  71
   Introduction and History                                          71
   Dot Formulas, the Octet Rule, and Ionic Bonds                     74
   Covalent Bonds                                                    76
   Electronegativity and the Polar Covalent Bond                     76
   Polar Molecules and Hydrogen Bonds                                78
   Bond Energies                                                     79
   The Metallic Bond                                                 80
   Bonding and Molecular Geometry                                    80
   Modern Bonding Theory                                             82
8  Intermolecular Forces and the Solid and Liquid States             85
   Introduction                                                      85
   Characteristics of Solids, Liquids, and Gases                     86
   Intermolecular Forces                                             86
   Crystalline Solids                                                90
   Amorphous Solids                                                  92
   Liquids                                                           93
   Material Science                                                  95



9   Gases                                                               99
    Introduction                                                        99
    Pressure                                                            99
    The Gas Laws                                                       102
    The Ideal Gas Law                                                  106
    Partial Pressure and Vapor Pressure                                107
    Applications of the Gas Laws                                       109
10  Phase Changes and Thermochemistry                                  113
    Introduction                                                       113
    Changes of State                                                   113
    Energy and Phase Changes                                           113
    Heating Curves                                                     115
    Calorimetry                                                        118
    Heat of Reaction                                                   120
    Applications of Heat of Reactions                                  122
11  Solutions                                                          125
    Introduction                                                       125
    The Solution Process                                               126
    Electrolytes                                                       128
    Concentration of Solutions                                         129
    Solubility of Gases                                                130
    Colligative Properties                                             131
    Reactions of Solutions                                             134
    Colloids and Suspensions                                           136
12  Kinetics and Equilibrium                                           139
    Introduction                                                       139
    Reaction Rates                                                     139
    The Collision Theory                                               140
    Factors Affecting Reaction Rates                                   142
    Reaction Mechanisms and Catalysis                                  144
    Chemical Equilibrium                                               147
    Le Chatelier's Principle                                           149
    The Equilibrium Constant                                           151
    Ammonia and the Haber Process                                      152
13  Acids and Bases                                                    155
    Introduction and History                                           155
    Chemical Definitions of Acids and Bases                            156
    Strengths of Acids and Bases                                      159
    Acid Concentration                                                 160
    pH and pOH                                                         161
    Neutralization Reactions                                           163
    Buffers                                                            166
    Summary                                                           169



14  Electrochemistry                                                   171
    Introduction                                                      171
    History                                                           171
    Oxidation and Reduction                                           176
    Oxidation Numbers                                                 177
    Electrochemical Cells                                             179
    Electrolysis                                                      184
    Batteries                                                         185
    Corrosion                                                         189
    Electroplating                                                    190
    Commercial Applications and Electrorefining                       191
    Summary                                                           193
15  Organic Chemistry                                                  195
    Introduction and History                                          195
    Organic Compounds                                                 198
    Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                                            199
    Aromatic Hydrocarbons-Benzene                                     205
    Functional Groups and Organic Families                            207
    Petroleum                                                         216
    Organic Products                                                  219
    Summary                                                           220
16  Biochemistry                                                       221
    Introduction                                                      221
    Carbohydrates                                                     221
    Lipids                                                            226
    Proteins                                                          229
    Nucleic Acids                                                     233
    Biotechnology                                                     236
17  Nuclear Chemistry                                                  241
    Introduction                                                      241
    Nuclear Stability and Radioactivity                               241
    Radioactive Decay and Nuclear Reactions                           243
    Half-Life and Radiometric Dating                                  244
    Nuclear Binding Energy-Fission and Fusion                         246
    Fusion and Stellar Evolution                                      251
    Transmutation                                                     252
    Nuclear Medicine                                                  254
    Radiation Units and Detection                                     255
    Biological Effects of Radiation                                   257
    Summary                                                           259



18  Environmental Chemistry                                           261
    Introduction                                                      261
    Stratospheric Ozone Depletion                                     262
    Acid Rain                                                         266
    The Greenhouse Effect                                             270
    Water Quality                                                     273
    Air Pollution                                                     278
    Pesticides                                                        281
    Summary                                                           287
19  The Chemical Industry                                             289
    Introduction                                                      289
    Acids and Alkalis                                                 290
    Explosives                                                        292
    Synthetic Dyes                                                    293
    Synthetic Fibers and Plastics                                     297
    Synthetic Rubber                                                  299
    Petrochemicals                                                    301
    Industry Histories                                                302
    Summary                                                           307
20  Chemistry Experiments                                              309
    Introduction                                                      309
    The Scientific Method                                             309
    Chemistry Experimentation                                         312
    Chemical Activities                                               313
21  A Future in Chemistry                                              327
    Introduction                                                      327
    Chemist's Job Description and Training                            327
    Careers in Chemistry                                              330
    Professional Development and the American Chemical Society    332
    Glossary                                                          335
    Brief Timeline of Chemistry                                       351
    Nobel Laureates in Chemistry                                      355
    Table of the Elements                                             361
    Selected Bibliography                                             363
    Author Index                                                      365
    Subject Index                                                     369





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Chemistry