Table of contents for African development in a comparative perspective.


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INTRODUCTION                                                                         1

Chapter I

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS                               3


A. Post-independence take-off                                                        3
B. Faltering growth in the 1970s                                                     6
C. The crisis of the 1980s and thereafter                                            9
D. Adjustment, recovery and prospects                                               12
E. Improving the prospects: The role of debt relief                                 15
Notes                                                                               19


Chapter II

THE ROLE, STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURE                                 21


A. Introduction                                                                    21
B. The role of agriculture in economic growth                                      22
C. Main features of African agriculture                                            26
   1. Forms of production                                                          26
   2. Intersectoral dualism                                                         28
   3. Export and food crops, and tradability                                        28
D. Trends in agricultural production, trade and productivity                       31
   1. Production                                                                    31
   2. Trade                                                                         31
   3. Productivity levels and trends                                                34
E. Conclusions                                                                     39
Notes                                                                              39




Chapter III

AGRICULTURAL POLICIES, PRICES AND PRODUCTION                                             43


A. Introduction                                                                          43
B. Agricultural prices                                                                   44
   1. Taxation of export crops                                                           44
   2. Terms of trade and real producer prices                                            47
   3. Policy reforms and agricultural nrices                                             50
   4. Implications                                                                       53
C. Agricultural supply behaviour: Sources and constraints                                54
   1. Short-run supply response                                                          55
   2. Investment and productivity growth                                                 58
D. Adjustment policies and agricultural performance                                      61
E. Conclusions                                                                           63
Notes                                                                                    64


Chapter IV

TRADE, ACCUMULATION AND INDUSTRY                                                         69


A. Introduction                                                                          69
B. Main features of African trade                                                        70
   1. Level of trade                                                                     70
   2. Export composition and resource endowment                                          71
   3. Diversification in the primary sector                                              76
C. Accumulation and export growth                                                        77
   1. Expansion of traditional exports                                                   78
   2. Non-traditional exports                                                            80
D. Industry and competitiveness                                                         83
   1. The structure and performance of industry                                         84
   2. The competitiveness of manufacturing exports                                       86
E. The markets for African exports                                                      89
   1. OECD markets                                                                      89
   2. Opportunities for intraregional trade                                              90
Notes                                                                                   95


Chapter V

POLICY CHALLENGES AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORM                                              98


A. Introduction                                                                         98
B. Policy options                                                                       99
   1. Elements of a pro-investment climate                                              99
   2. Agricultural policies                                                             104
   3. Trade policies                                                                    106
C. Constraints of the new trading regime.                                              107
D. The institutional hiatus and reform                                                 108
Notes                                                                                   111





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