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1. Two Determined Diplomats 1 2. The Pre-Independence Outlook, 1774-76 13 3. From the Declaration of Independence to the Battle of Saratoga 61 4. From the French-U.S. Alliance to Spain's Entrance into the War, February 1778-April 1779 99 5. From the French-Spanish Alliance of April 1779 versus England to the Militarily Victorious Year of 1781 133 6. 1781-82: An American Military Campaign Unexpectedly Changes the Shape of the War 159 7. Peace Negotiations, 1782-83 169 8. Concluding Assessments 219 Appendix A: A Contemporary View of Pre-Independence Military Events and Their Consequences 227 Appendix B: Secretary Livingston's Unsent Analysis of "The Present State of Europe" (December 1781) 241 Notes 245Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Jay, John, 1745-1829, Vergennes, Charles Gravier, comte de, 1719-1787, Statesmen United States Biography, Statesmen France Biography, United States Foreign relations France, France Foreign relations United States, United States Foreign relations 1775-1783, United States History Revolution, 1775-1783 Peace, United States History Revolution, 1775-1783 Participation, French