Table of contents for Brain architecture : understanding the basic plan / Larry W. Swanson.


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1. How the Brain Works: Structure and Function  1
        Three Biological Perspectives   3

2. The Simplest Nervous Systems: Neurons, Nerve Nets, and Behavior 19
        Unicellular Organisms: Behaviors Essentialfor Survival     11
        Animals without Neurons: Independent Effectors  I          14
        The First Nervous System: Hydra's Body and Behavior  1     16
        Sensory Neurons: Functional Polarity ofDendrites and Axon 1 17
        Motoneurons: Another Distinct Neuronal Type  20
        Nerve Nets: Amacrine Processes and Activiy Patterns 1 22
        Intemeurons: Sign Switchers and Pattern Generators  24
        Overview: Evolution of Architecture, Not Building Blocks  26
        
3. Centralization and Symmetry: Ganglia and Nerves 1 29
        Flatworms: Bilaterally Symmetrical Predators  29
        Segmented Worms: Internal Ventral Nerve Cord  34
        More Evolved Invertebrates 1 36
        Overview: Polarity, Regionalization, Bilateral Symmetry,
        Segments  37
        
4. The Basic Vertebrate Plan: Nervous System Topology 1 40
        Embryological Perspectives  1 44
        Earliest Stages of Mammalian Development  1 48
        Neural Plate: Brain and Spinal Cord  51
        Neural Tube: Transverse Brain Divisions 1 53




        Neural Crest and Placodes: Peripheral Nervous System  1 57
        Generating Neuronal Cell Types and Groups: Longitudinal
        Brain Divisions 1 60
        A Nervous System Fate Map 1 68
        Overview: Parts of the Nervous System 1 76
        
5. Brain and Behavior: A Four Systems Network Model 1 80
        Reflex and Voluntary Control of Behavior  86
        Behavioral State Control 1 89
        Feedback  90
        Topography versus Systems  92
        Overview: Defining Each System  95

6. The Motor System: Coordinating External and Internal Behaviors 1 97
        Motoneuron Classes  1 98
        Introduction to the Somatomotor System: Flexion  1  102
        Distribution of Somatomotor Neuron Pools 1 104
        Central Pattern Generators: Sets of Motoneuron Pools  I  109
        Pattern Initiators and Controllers: Drive and Motivation  1  117
        The Autonomic Motor System 1 122
        The Neuroendocrine Motor System  126
        The Cerebellum: Motor Coordination and Learning  131
        Overview: Integration within and between Motor Systems  1  134

7. The Behavioral State System: Intrinsic Control of Sleep and Wakefulness     1  139
        Circadian Rhythms: The Day-Night Cycle  I  142
        Reproductive Cycles  1  145
        Sleep-Wake Cycles 1 148
        Modulating Behavioral State 1 149

8. The Cognitive System: Thinking and Voluntary Control of Behavior 1 156
        Cerebral Cortex Regionalization  1  158
        Cortical Cellular Organization    166
        Cortical Projections  1  172




         The Cerebral Nuclei  I  172
         Triple Descending Projection from Cerebrum  175

9. The Sensory System: Inputs from the Environment and the Body 1 182
         Evolution and Development of Sensory Neurons  1  184
         Overview of Sensory Neurons   187
         Overview of Sensory Pathways  l  191
         Forebrain Sensory Systems: Olfactory, Visual, Humoral, and Osmotic 1 193
         Ganglion Cell Sensory Systems: Submodalities  198
         Affect: Pain and Pleasure, Emotion, and Mood  201
         
10. Modifiability: Learning, Stress, Cycles, and Damage Repair 1 206
         Learning: Changing Synaptic Strength  207
         Stress: Biochemical Switching  210
         Cycles: Circadian and Reproductive  215
         Damage Repair: Regrowth  217

11. Gene Networks: Relationship to Neural Networks           1 219

Appendices 1 223
         A. Describing Position in the Animal Body 1 223
         B. Naming and Classifing Nervous System Parts  1 229
         C. Methods for Analyzing Brain Architecture  235

Glossary 1 243
Index 1 247





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Brain, Neural circuitry, Neuroanatomy