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Foreword Io Introduction 12 Chapter 1: The Fear of Communist Aggression 1. An Iron Curtain Divides Europe 32 Winston Churchill Europe is divided by an iron curtain that separates free democratic nations from totalitarian Commu- nist regimes. Until the United Nations becomes strong enough to preserve world peace, the British Commonwealth and the United States should form a united defense to protect struggling democratic nations from the tyranny of communism. 2. Protecting Greece and Turkey from Communist Aggression 42 Harry S. Truman The United States represents a way of life based upon freedom and must support and protect other free na- tions from communism, which is based upon oppres- sion. If Greece, Turkey, and their neighbors are to re- main free, the United States must provide financial support to fight Communist aggression in the region. 3. The State Department Is Infested with Communists 51 Joseph R. McCarthy The world faces a showdown between the forces of Communist atheism and Christian democracy as the number of people under Soviet domination in- creases. America is threatened with defeat in the Cold War because Communists who have infiltrated the State Department are shaping American foreign policy. Only when these traitors are removed will honest government be restored. 4. Trial by Accusation Is Dangerous to the Nation 59 Margaret Chase Smith The American people are losing confidence in their government because they fear they can no longer' speak their minds without being labeled Commu- nists. They also worry that their lives will be ruined based on unproven accusations. Character assassi- nation erodes the principles of democracy and threatens national unity. Chapter 2: Coercion, Conflict, and Crisis 1. Appeasing China Means Surrendering to Communism 65 Douglas MacArthur To avoid decisive action against Communist China's intervention in Korea is to surrender to the global threat of communism. When nations battle, the ob- jective is victory, not appeasement of the enemy. The United States should support the South Korean people and the efforts of United Nations soldiers who are fighting to protect the free nations of Asia. 2. A Victory over U.S. Aggression in Korea 71 Mao Tse-tung Although the Chinese people want peace, they are not afraid of war. As a result of help given by the masses, China achieved victory against American aggression in Korea. Unfortunately, fighting imperi- alist aggression requires peasants to make immedi- ate economic sacrifices to protect China's long-term interests. 3. American Colonialism Threatens World Peace 79 Nikita Khrushchev The United Nations should support the right of states to choose their own form of government- even when their choice is communism-and help liberate developing nations from colonial domina- tion by American militarists and monopolists. In or- der to help relieve international tensions, the UN should consider Soviet proposals that support a pol- icy of peaceful coexistence. 4. Communist Nations Threaten Freedofi Worldwide 90 Dean Rusk Communist nations coerce emerging nations to ac- cept their oppressive political systems. To strengthen Western solidarity, free nations must form alliances to promote the economic and social progress of de- veloping nations and protect them against Commu- nist expansion. 5. Saying "No" to Yankee Imperialism 97 Ernesto "Che" Guevara The United States failed in its duty to protect Cuba. Americans took advantage of Cuba's sugar trade at the expense of the Cuban people, but Cuba has suc- ceeded in its revolution against U.S. imperialism. Cuba has a new position of power in the world and must be willing to wage nuclear war against the United States in order to remain a free nation. 6. Facing the Cuban Missile Crisis 102 John E Kennedy Despite Soviet assurances to the contrary, surveil- lance reveals long-range offensive nuclear weapons in Cuba that threaten America's security. The United States has asked Soviet leaders to remove these weapons and will prevent any further shipments of military equipment to Cuba. Moreover, the United States will regard any missile launched from Cuba an attack requiring retaliation. 7. The Vietnam War Is Indefensible o09 Eugene McCarthy The American people have lost confidence in their government due to its inability to justify the sacri- fice of American lives in Vietnam. The war in Viet- nam is diplomatically, historically, militarily, and morally indefensible. To restore the nation's confi- dence, America's leaders must end the war. Chapter 3: The Threat of Nuclear War 1. The Menace of Mass Destruction I6 Albert Einstein Scientists who are most qualified to resolve the prob- lems posed by the use of atomic weapons are kept from working together because the world is divided into opposing political camps. Unfortunately, the threat of mass destruction increases when nationalis- tic government officials-not scientists-are allowed to negotiate solutions pertaining to nuclear arms. 2. The Peaceful Use of Atomic Power IIs Dwight D. Eisenhower Since the first atomic bomb was exploded, the quality and capability of atomic weapons has increased dra-- matically, threatening mankind with annihilation. However, atomic power can be used for peaceful ends, such as providing energy to developing nations. Nations with stockpiles of nuclear weapons should turn them over to an international agency that will encourage the study of peaceful uses of atomic power. 3. Nuclear Testing Must Be Stopped 125 Adlai Stevenson After years of talking about the threat posed by nu- clear weapons, those nations with nuclear technol- ogy must take the first step toward nuclear disarma- ment-putting an end to nuclear testing. The United States is willing to take this step but will also be prepared to protect itself and the free world if inter- national testing negotiations fail. 4. The American People Must Act to Prevent a Nuclear Holocaust 133 Edward J. Bloustein Although Americans are paralyzed by fear of a nu- clear holocaust, individual and collective efforts to address the problems posed by nuclear weapons can prevent such a tragedy from occurring. The Ameri- can people should share their concerns, help in- crease awareness of the problem, and aim for a commonsense solution. Chapter 4: The Struggle for Peace 1. A Message to the People of the Soviet Union 143 Richard M. Nixon The Russian and American people have a history of cooperation and are making efforts at detente by pursuing common interests: expansion of trade, ex- change of ideas, and control of nuclear arms. Great nations such as the Soviet Union and the United States have a responsibility to use their power to preserve world peace and discourage aggression among smaller nations. 2. Meeting New Global Challenges 151 Henry Kissinger Riots and a costly war have divided America. To re- store the nation's confidence, all branches of the government must be honest with the American people and base foreign policy decisions on the shared values of all Americans. Global challenges such as limited energy supplies require a foreign pol- icy based on cooperation rather than confrontation. 3. Building a Relationship with China I57 Walter E Mondale China is developing into a great modern nation and understands that countries hoping to maintain their security and ensure world peace cannot exist in isolation. Despite ideological differences, the United States has already begun to normalize rela- tions with China, developing strong economic, cultural, and political ties that will guarantee each nation's independence. 4. The Struggle Against Totalitarianism 165 Ronald Reagan Economic problems and continued repression of hu- man freedom in Communist nations has revealed to the world that Soviet systems have failed. In conse- quence, a renewed struggle to liberate those op- pressed by these totalitarian governments is growing. To support those who struggle against Communist regimes, free nations must strengthen their alliances and develop their military capabilities. 5. Transforming the Soviet Union 172 Mikhail Gorbachev Nations can no longer live in isolation but must participate in global efforts to protect the environ- ment and promote human rights. Soviet leaders are restructuring the Soviet state, developing a plan for the demilitarization of Eastern Europe, and moving toward nuclear disarmament. Chapter 5: The Berlin Wall: Symbol of the Cold War 1. A Call for Action Against the Building of the Berlin Wall 183 Thomas J. Dodd Action, not vague protests, will prove to the Soviet Union that the United States will not tolerate Com- munist expansion. By taking action against the building of the Berlin Wall, the United States has an opportunity to show the world it can keep its com- mitment to support nations struggling to oppose Communist aggression. 2. Berlin Reflects the Struggle Between Freedom and Oppression 191 John F. Kennedy Those who doubt the oppressive nature of commu- nism should come to Berlin to see the wall that Communists have built to keep East Berliners from escaping to freedom. As long as one man remains enslaved, neither Berlin nor the rest of the world will be free. 3. Tear Down This Wall 194 Ronald Reagan To create productive economic, cultural, and political ties with the world, the Soviets must tear down the Berlin Wall that divides East and West Berlin. While people in West Berlin have prospered, their Commu- nist neighbors in East Berlin have withered. Obvi- ously, if the Soviet Union seeks peace and prosperity, it must tear down the walls between East and West. 4. Remembering the Wall 2oz Wolfgang Thierse Many who sought freedom died trying to escape their confinement behind the Berlin Wall. To honor their memory, to continue the protection of human rights, and to overcome remaining divisions, the world must remember the peaceful revolution in East Germany that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989.Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Cold War History Sources, Speeches, addresses, etc, United States Foreign relations Soviet Union Sources, Europe Foreign relations 1945- Sources, Soviet Union Foreign relations United States Sources, World politics 1945-1989 History Sources