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1. THE LATE MIDDLE AGES IN EASTERN EUROPE 1 Introduction 1 The Crusades 4 The Fall of Byzantium, 1081-1453 11 'The Ottoman Empire, 1453-1699 16 Russia from the Thirteenth to the End of the Seventeenth Centuries 21 Summary 30 2. THE RISE OF THE NATION 32 A World Turned Upside Down 32 The Emerging National Monarchies 40 Particularism in Germany and Italy 54 Summary 64 3. THE RENAISSANCE 66 A Money Economy 67 Printing, Thought, and Literature 73 Science and Religion 81 The Fine Arts 88 The Art of Daily Living 94 Summary 98 4. EXPLORATION AND EXPANSION 100 The Expansion of the West 100 East by Sea to the Indies 104 West by Sea to the Indies 111 The North Atlantic Powers 116 Russia 122 The Impact of Expansion 124 Summary 129 5. THE AGE OF REFORMATION 131 Protestant Founders 134 Protestant Beliefs and Practices 149 The Catholic Reformation 154 Protestantism and the Idea of Progress 161 Summary 167 6. THE GREAT POWERS IN CONFLICT 169 A Long Duree 169 A Complexity of Wars 174 Between Feudal Kingdom and Nation State: Absolutism 178 The Catholic Monarchies: Spain and France 180 The Protestant States: Tudor England and the Dutch Republic 190 The Holy Roman Empire and the Thirty Years' War 199 Absolutism and Slavery 205 Science and Religion 207 Summary 216Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:Europe Church history 600-1500, Crusades, Civilization, Medieval, Europe History 1492-1648, Renaissance, Discoveries in geography, Reformation, Russia History To 1533