Table of contents for Early Black reformers / James Tackach, book editor.

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Foreword                                                11
Introduction: The Early Fight for Civil Rights       13

Chapter 1: Black Abolitionists
Chapter Preface                                         29
1. A Condemnation of the International Slave Trade
  by Olaudah Equiano                                   31
  A former slave who became a leader in the effort to
  outlaw the international slave trade reveals his own
  experiences as a child aboard a slave ship. This ex-
  cerpt from a slave narrative documents the harrowing
  "middle passage" from Africa to the New World.
2. Slavery Violates the Will of God
  by David Walker                                      42
  A free black citizen presents a religious critique of
  American slavery and predicts that God will visit
  vengeance upon a nation that tolerates slavery.
3. A Slave Rebellion
  by Nat Turner                                        48
  The leader of a slave rebellion details how he came to
  launch his revolt of August 1831 and how he carried
  out his grisly work, which resulted in the violent
  deaths of sixty slave owners and family members.
4. Becoming an Abolitionist Leader
  by Frederick Douglass                                58
  The great abolitionist orator and writer describes the
  beginning of his noteworthy public career. A short
  speech at an antislavery convention in Nantucket ini-
  tiates Douglass into the rapidly growing abolitionist
5. A Woman Abolitionist Speaks Out
  by Sojourner Truth                                   65
  A woman abolitionist orator delivers her message to
  an unreceptive audience at a women's rights conven-
  tion. But when she concludes her speech, she receives
  a rousing ovation.


Chapter 2: The Civil War and
Reconstruction Eras
Chapter Preface                                       71
1. Assistance for the Newly Freed Slaves
  by Harriet Jacobs                                  73
  A former slave raises the problematic question of
  what to do about refugee slaves displaced during the
  Civil War, and she identifies the pressing needs of the
  new freemen: food and shelter, medical attention, ed-
  ucation, and job training.
2. A Day of Celebration for Abolitionists
  by Charlotte Forten Grimke                         83
  A black woman records in her journal the joyous cel-
  ebrations of January 1, 1863, the day that President
  Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclama-
  tion. For African Americans, this day is "the dawn of
3. Reconstruction and the Needs of the American Negro
  by Frederick Douglass                              91
  The leading African American reformer of the nine-
  teenth century identifies the issues of concern to
  black Americans during the post-Civil War era.
  Douglass urges Congress to act at once to protect the
  rights of black citizens.
4. The Role of Colored Women in Postwar American
  by Frances Watkins Harper                         100
  A civil rights activist discusses the role of black
  American women in post-Civil War American soci-
  ety. Through examples, Harper shows that black
  women can live independently and achieve distinc-
  tion in the professions.

Chapter 3: Booker T. Washington and His
Chapter Preface                                      107
1. A New Era of Industrial Progress
  by Booker T. Washington                           109
  The eminent black spokesman articulates his vision for

   educational and occupational opportunities for South-
   ern blacks. He downplays the need for social equality
   and stresses the need for economic independence.
2. A Critique of Booker T. Washington's Message
  by W.E.B. DuBois                                     117
  The leading critic of Booker T. Washington presents
  his case. Black citizens must have the right to vote,
  civic equality, and educational opportunity.
3. Booker T. Washington's Accomplishments
  by Pauline Hopkins                                   124
  A leading turn-of-the-twentieth-century editor as-
  sesses the contributions of Booker T. Washington. His
  critics notwithstanding, Washington was a man with a
  striking personality and magnetic influence.
4. Tensions Within the Civil Rights Movement
  by Ida B. Wells-Barnett                              129
  An early twentieth-century civil rights activist
  records her own struggle for a leadership role in the
  civil rights movement. In doing so, she identifies ten-
  sions within the movement and opposition to women
  who sought leadership positions.

Chapter 4: The Early Twentieth Century
Chapter Preface                                        134
1. Fighting to Stop Lynching
  by Ida B. Wells-Barnett                              136
  The leader of an antilynching campaign reports her
  successful effort to remove from office a sheriff from
  Cairo, Illinois, for not preventing a lynching in his
  district. Wells-Barnett rallies the town's black citizens
  and makes an eloquent appeal to the governor.
2. The Social Equality of Blacks and Whites
  by W.E.B. DuBois                                     144
  A leading black reformer of the early twentieth cen-
  tury makes clear his definition of social equality. The
  term means the "fitness to associate with one's fel-
  lowman" and does not necessarily include intermar-
  riage between whites and blacks.

3. Creating a Separate Black Nation
  by Marcus Garvey                                    148
  A black nationalist and separatist explains the origins
  of his views. He learns of racial distinctions as a young
  boy and later advocates the separation of the races.
4. Fleeing the South
  by Richard Wright                                   156
  One of the most prominent African American authors
  of the twentieth century explains how he achieved his
  goal by fleeing the segregated South. To fulfill his
  dream of becoming a writer, Wright must escape the
  suffocating atmosphere of the Jim Crow South.

Chapter 5: Martin Luther King's
Chapter Preface                                       163
1. Integrating Major League Baseball
  by Jackie Robinson                                  165
  A trailblazer in the post-World War II desegregation
  effort describes the difficulties that he encountered
  while integrating major league baseball. Robinson is
  taunted and insulted by opposing players but receives
  warm support from teammates.
2. The Effort to Desegregate America's Public Schools
  by Thurgood Marshall                                174
  A civil rights lawyer describes his efforts to desegre-
  gate America's public schools. The court cases cited
  will culminate in the landmark school desegregation
  case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
3. Desegregating Montgomery's Buses
  by Rosa Parks                                       184
  The mother of the civil rights movement describes
  the event that ignited the movement. Parks's refusal
  to surrender her bus seat ignites a civil rights move-
  ment that changes the nation.


Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: African Americans Civil rights History Sources, African Americans Politics and government Sources, African Americans Social conditions Sources, Antislavery movements United States History Sources, African American civil rights workers Biography, African American political activists Biography, African American social reformers Biography, United States Race relations Sources