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Foreword 11 Introduction: The Early Fight for Civil Rights 13 Chapter 1: Black Abolitionists Chapter Preface 29 1. A Condemnation of the International Slave Trade by Olaudah Equiano 31 A former slave who became a leader in the effort to outlaw the international slave trade reveals his own experiences as a child aboard a slave ship. This ex- cerpt from a slave narrative documents the harrowing "middle passage" from Africa to the New World. 2. Slavery Violates the Will of God by David Walker 42 A free black citizen presents a religious critique of American slavery and predicts that God will visit vengeance upon a nation that tolerates slavery. 3. A Slave Rebellion by Nat Turner 48 The leader of a slave rebellion details how he came to launch his revolt of August 1831 and how he carried out his grisly work, which resulted in the violent deaths of sixty slave owners and family members. 4. Becoming an Abolitionist Leader by Frederick Douglass 58 The great abolitionist orator and writer describes the beginning of his noteworthy public career. A short speech at an antislavery convention in Nantucket ini- tiates Douglass into the rapidly growing abolitionist crusade. 5. A Woman Abolitionist Speaks Out by Sojourner Truth 65 A woman abolitionist orator delivers her message to an unreceptive audience at a women's rights conven- tion. But when she concludes her speech, she receives a rousing ovation. Chapter 2: The Civil War and Reconstruction Eras Chapter Preface 71 1. Assistance for the Newly Freed Slaves by Harriet Jacobs 73 A former slave raises the problematic question of what to do about refugee slaves displaced during the Civil War, and she identifies the pressing needs of the new freemen: food and shelter, medical attention, ed- ucation, and job training. 2. A Day of Celebration for Abolitionists by Charlotte Forten Grimke 83 A black woman records in her journal the joyous cel- ebrations of January 1, 1863, the day that President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclama- tion. For African Americans, this day is "the dawn of freedom." 3. Reconstruction and the Needs of the American Negro by Frederick Douglass 91 The leading African American reformer of the nine- teenth century identifies the issues of concern to black Americans during the post-Civil War era. Douglass urges Congress to act at once to protect the rights of black citizens. 4. The Role of Colored Women in Postwar American Society by Frances Watkins Harper 100 A civil rights activist discusses the role of black American women in post-Civil War American soci- ety. Through examples, Harper shows that black women can live independently and achieve distinc- tion in the professions. Chapter 3: Booker T. Washington and His Critics Chapter Preface 107 1. A New Era of Industrial Progress by Booker T. Washington 109 The eminent black spokesman articulates his vision for educational and occupational opportunities for South- ern blacks. He downplays the need for social equality and stresses the need for economic independence. 2. A Critique of Booker T. Washington's Message by W.E.B. DuBois 117 The leading critic of Booker T. Washington presents his case. Black citizens must have the right to vote, civic equality, and educational opportunity. 3. Booker T. Washington's Accomplishments by Pauline Hopkins 124 A leading turn-of-the-twentieth-century editor as- sesses the contributions of Booker T. Washington. His critics notwithstanding, Washington was a man with a striking personality and magnetic influence. 4. Tensions Within the Civil Rights Movement by Ida B. Wells-Barnett 129 An early twentieth-century civil rights activist records her own struggle for a leadership role in the civil rights movement. In doing so, she identifies ten- sions within the movement and opposition to women who sought leadership positions. Chapter 4: The Early Twentieth Century Chapter Preface 134 1. Fighting to Stop Lynching by Ida B. Wells-Barnett 136 The leader of an antilynching campaign reports her successful effort to remove from office a sheriff from Cairo, Illinois, for not preventing a lynching in his district. Wells-Barnett rallies the town's black citizens and makes an eloquent appeal to the governor. 2. The Social Equality of Blacks and Whites by W.E.B. DuBois 144 A leading black reformer of the early twentieth cen- tury makes clear his definition of social equality. The term means the "fitness to associate with one's fel- lowman" and does not necessarily include intermar- riage between whites and blacks. 3. Creating a Separate Black Nation by Marcus Garvey 148 A black nationalist and separatist explains the origins of his views. He learns of racial distinctions as a young boy and later advocates the separation of the races. 4. Fleeing the South by Richard Wright 156 One of the most prominent African American authors of the twentieth century explains how he achieved his goal by fleeing the segregated South. To fulfill his dream of becoming a writer, Wright must escape the suffocating atmosphere of the Jim Crow South. Chapter 5: Martin Luther King's Forerunners Chapter Preface 163 1. Integrating Major League Baseball by Jackie Robinson 165 A trailblazer in the post-World War II desegregation effort describes the difficulties that he encountered while integrating major league baseball. Robinson is taunted and insulted by opposing players but receives warm support from teammates. 2. The Effort to Desegregate America's Public Schools by Thurgood Marshall 174 A civil rights lawyer describes his efforts to desegre- gate America's public schools. The court cases cited will culminate in the landmark school desegregation case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. 3. Desegregating Montgomery's Buses by Rosa Parks 184 The mother of the civil rights movement describes the event that ignited the movement. Parks's refusal to surrender her bus seat ignites a civil rights move- ment that changes the nation.Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: African Americans Civil rights History Sources, African Americans Politics and government Sources, African Americans Social conditions Sources, Antislavery movements United States History Sources, African American civil rights workers Biography, African American political activists Biography, African American social reformers Biography, United States Race relations Sources