Table of contents for High resolution focused ion beams : FIB and its applications : the physics of liquid metal ion sources and ion optics and their application to focused ion beam technology / Jon Orloff, Mark Utlaut, and Lynwood Swanson.


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INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................  1

1. FIELD IONIZATION SOURCES......................................................... 5
  1.1. GAS FIELD IONIZATION SOURCES.............................................. 5
  1.2. LIQUID METAL FIELD IONIZATION SOURCES ......................... 1

2. PHYSICS OF LIQUID METAL ION SOURCES.............................. 21
  2.1.        INTRODUCTION .........................21
  2.2.        THEORY OF LMIS OPERATION................................... 22
  2.3.        EARLY EXPERIMENTS ON EMISSION OF IONS FROM LIQUID METALS (PRE-1975).... 23
  2.4.        ION PRODUCTION.............................. ................... 25
  2.5.        THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION OF LMIS BEHAVIOR............................... 27
  2.6.        EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LMIS SHAPE................. 36
  2.7.        LATER THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENTS: CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSION............. 37
  2.8.        LIQUID FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN THE LMIS........ 41
  2.9.        THE EFFECT OF SPACE CHARGE ON ION EMISSION AND THE SHAPE OF THE
          I-V CHARACTERISTIC........................   ............   44
  2.10.       LOW CURRENT EMISSION....................................   48
  2.11.       CONCLUSIONS REGARDING LMIS THEORY............... 51
  2.12.       LMIS EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS.......................... 51
  2.13.       ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS USED IN LMIS..................... 52
  2.14.       ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS................................................52
  2.15.       ANGULAR INTENSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS.........................59
  2.16.       NOISE............................................................. 61
  2.17.       SOURCE LIFETIME............................................................ 62
  2.18.       EMITTER FABRICATION AND TESTING METHODS............................ 63
  2.19.       PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED IN LMIS.................................... 66



3.   ION OPTICS FOR LMIS...................................................................... 79
   3.1.       INTRODUCTION................................................................. 79
   3.2.       OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE LMIS............................. 80
   3.3.       REVIEW OF CHARGED PARTICLE OPTICS................... 83
     3.3.1.            The Refractive Power of an Electrostatic Lens........ 84
     3.3.2.            The Paraxial Ray Equation..................................... 86
     3.3.3.            Application of the Paraxial Ray Equation................ 88
   3.4.       LENS ABERRATIONS...................................................... 89
   3.5.       ION FOCUSING SYSTEMS FOR FIELD EMISSION ION SOURCES........................94
   3.6.       WAVE OPTICS................................................................... 97
   3.7.       ION OPTICAL FORMALISM AND RESOLUTION ....................................... 107
   3.8.       SPACECHARGEEFFECTS.............................................. 114
   3.9.       LIMITS OF RESOLUTION................................................ 115
   3.10.      FOCUSING SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS.....................................11

4.   INTERACTION OF IONS WITH SOLIDS...................................... 123
  4.1.          INTRODUCTION.............................................................. 123
  4.2.          ENERGYLOSSES.............................................................. 125
     4.2.1.            Nuclear Losses....................................................... 125
     4.2.2.            Electronic Losses................................................... 127
  4.3.    CHANNELING..................................130
  4.4.    DAMAGE TO THE SAMPLE..................................133
  4.5.    SPUTTERING..................................................................... 137

5. PRACTICAL FOCUSED ION BEAM OPTICS AND SYSTEMS........................................ 147
  5.1.          INTRODUCTION............................................................. 147
  5.2.          SOURCES..........................................................................  147
  5.3.          PRACTICAL FOCUSING OPTICS.................................. 152
  5.4.          LENS DESIGN.................................................................... 156
  5.5.          THE DEFLECTION SYSTEM........................................... 157
  5.6.          E x B MASS FILTER DESIGN...........................................158
  5.7.          BEAM ALIGNMENT TECHNIQUES.............................. 159
  5.8.          REALLENSDEFECTS.....................................................161
  5.9.          MAGNETICFIELDPERTURBATIONS..........................166
  5.10.         INSULATORSHIELDING.................................................166
  5.11.   COULOMB BEAM  INTERACTIONS................................166
  5.12.   WAVE OPTICS VS. GEOMETRICAL OPTICS............... 171
  5.13.   HOW TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE ............... 173
  5.14.   DETECTORS AND IMAGING.......................................... 184
  5.15.   ION MICROSCOPY: USING BOTH IONS AND ELECTRONS TO IMAGE...................... 192
  5.16.   COLLECTING INFORMATION: FORMING GOOD IMAGES.................................. 192



  5.17.   IMAGING AND MILLING VEXATIONS DUE TO CHARGING................................ 196

6.   APPLICATIONS OF FOCUSED ION BEAMS ............................... 205
  6.1.          INTRODUCTION..............................................................205
  6.2.          MICRO-MACHINING........................................................ 207
  6.3.          MAKING A CROSS-SECTION CUT................................ 213
  6.4.    TEMSAMPLE PREPARATION..................................219
  6.5.          USING SAMPLE DAMAGE TO ADVANTAGE............. 224
  6.6.          DEPOSITION OF MATERIALS....................................... 224
  6.7.          ENHANCED ETCH AND DEPOSITION.......................... 236
     6.7.1.    Enhanced Etch  .   ................................. 236
     6.7.2.    Deposition.............................................................. 238
  6.8.          SCANNING ION MICROSCOPY (SIM)........................... 245
  6.9.          MICRO-MILLING COPPER...............................................272
  6.10.   ACCESS TO DIE CIRCUITRY FROM THE "BACKSIDE"...........................253
  6.11.   SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY (FIB/SIMS): THE EXPLOITATION
          OFDESTRUCTION........................................................... 255
  6.12.         FIB IMPLANTATION........................................................ 267
  6.13.         FIBLITHOGRAPHY.......................................................... 277
  6.14.         MICRO-MECHANICAL DEVICES (MEMS)................... 279

  APPENDIX 1   ELEMENTS OF THE THEORY OF
                FIELD DESORPTION AND IONIZATION.... 291

  APPENDIX 2   TABLE OF SPUTTER YIELDS......................... 295

  INDEX ........................................................................... 297

  ABOUT THE AUTHORS................................................................... 303





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:Ion bombardment Industrial applications