Table of contents for 101 Questions and answers on Confucianism, Daoism, and Shinto / John Renard.


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ONE: BEGINNINGS AND EARLY SOURCES                     5

  1. Who was Confucius and what do traditional
      accounts tell us about his life?               7
  2. What are the origins of "Confucianism"? Who
      were the Literati?                             8
  3. How is the Chinese Imperial Tradition (CIT)
      related to "Confucianism"?                      9
  4. What were the earliest Confucian sacred texts? Has
      Confucian tradition included any other sacred texts
      in its canon?                                   11
  5. Who was Laozi, and what was his connection with
      the origins of religious Daoism and its scriptures?  13
  6. What is religious Daoism and how does it differ
      from "Chinese Community Traditions" (CCT)?    14
  7. Were there other important Daoist scriptures? And
      did an official canon of Daoist sacred texts ever
      develop?                                        16
  8. What is Shinto and what are its origins?       18
  9. What are the earliest important Shinto sacred texts?  18



 10. Were Shinto's sacred texts ever gathered into a for-
      mal scriptural canon?                           19
 11. Are there important "mythic" elements in these
      traditions?                                    20
 12. Who are some of the principal Shinto deities, apart
      from those mentioned in the primal myth?     23


TWO: DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD                           25

 13. If Confucius and Laozi were not considered divine
      early on, how did they come to assume so lofty a
      stature?                                       27
 14. What chief deities and other important sacred per-
      sonages eventually came to form the Daoist
      pantheon?                                      28
 15. How have Daoist/CCT history and myth come
      together in the stories of the Jade Emperor,
      Guandi, and the Yellow Emperor?                30
 16. What was the relationship between religious ritual
      and the power of the Chinese imperial court?  32
 17. Have the Chinese traditions ever been intimately
      dentified with specific political regimes, the way
      Shinto became Japan's "national" creed?      34
 18. Is there a distinctively Confucian interpretation
      of history?                                    36
 19. Have there been any important Confucian reform
      movements? What are Neo-Confucianism and
      Neo-Daoism?                                    37
 20. What is the historical importance of the develop-
      ments known as Dual Shinto and the School of
      National Learning?                             39
 21. How would you sum up the history of Confucianism? 41
 22. How would you summarize the history of religious
      Daoism?                                        42
 23. How would you sum up the history of Shinto?   43



THREE: DOCTRINES AND PRACTICES                          45

 24. Is creed an important concept in the major Chinese
      and Japanese traditions?                         47
 25. Are "doctrine" and "dogma" important concepts
      in Chinese and Japanese religion?                48
 26. Is the concept of revelation useful in understanding
      the traditions of China and Japan?               50
 27. Does belief in an afterlife play an important role in
      Chinese and Japanese religious thought?      52
 28. Are salvation or redemption important concepts?  54
 29. What kind of ritual calendar do these traditions
      observe?                                         55
 30. How important is the concept of "ritual" in Confu-
      cianism and the CIT? Could you describe an exam-
      ple of an annual CIT ritual occasion?        58
 31. What regular or annual observances have been
      part of Confucian/CIT tradition?                 59
 32. What are the major types of Daoist religious
      observance?                                      61
 33. What are some of the major festivities Shinto practi-
      tioners celebrate?                               64
 34. What place does purification occupy in Shinto rit-
      ual? And what are the main features of major shrine
      rituals?                                         66


FOUR: AUTHORITY, LAW, AND ETHICS                       71

 35. Are there critical concepts about the nature of the
      human person?                                    73
 36. How do Confucians, Daoists, and adherents of Shinto
      think about the goal of human life?              74
 37. Is there a distinctive religious or theological "ethic"
      in these traditions?                             75



 38. What is the principal Confucian virtue? What is
      meant by "rectification of names"?               78
 39. What is the basic Confucian concept of appropriate
      moral leadership? And what is the Mandate of
      Heaven?                                          79
 40. Is there a central teaching authority in any of the
      major Chinese and Japanese traditions?        81
 41. Have the Chinese and Japanese evolved discrete sys-
      tems of religious law?                           82
 42. Are there important hierarchical structures in these
      religious traditions?                            84
 43. How does the hierarchy among Shinto shrines
      work?                                            87
 44. What are some of the main varieties of officials or
      ritual specialists?                              88
 45. How are leaders chosen and vested with authority? 90


FIVE: SPIRITUALITY AND POPULAR PIETY                   93

 46. What do these traditions say about ultimate spiri-
      tual reality?                                    95
 47. Are miracles an important element in the spirituality
      of these traditions?                             98
 48. Are relics significant in these traditions?    99
 49. Is there such a thing as a saint in Chinese and Japan-
      ese religious traditions?                       100
 50. Do these traditions celebrate the birthdays of any
      religious figures or honor them on "feast days"?  104
 51. Have there been any Confucian, Daoist, or Shinto
      mystics?                                        106
 52. Has martyrdom ever been important in the history
      of the Chinese and Japanese traditions?      107
 53. Do Confucians, Daoists, and adherents of Shinto
      believe in angels or devils?                    108



 54. Given the ubiquitous presence of spirits, is exorcism
      an important practice in Chinese or Japanese tradi-
      tions?                                          111
 55. What role do dreams and visions, or other spirit-
      manifestations, play?                           113
 56. Is the practice of divination prominent in Chinese
      and Japanese spiritualities?                    114
 57. How do Chinese and Japanese faith traditions deal
      ritually with death and mourning?               116


SIX: RELIGION AND ARTISTIC EXPRESSION                 121

 58. Are there any signs or symbols that might identify
      an individual as an adherent of a particular Chinese
      or Japanese tradition?                          123
 59. What signs or symbols distinguish ritual specialists
      in the Chinese and Japanese traditions?       124
 60. Is there such a thing as Confucian or Shinto art or
      aesthetics?                                     127
 61. Do Confucians mark their sacred spaces with any
      distinctive signs and symbols?                  128
 62. Are there symbolic dimensions in CIT sacred
      spaces?                                         129
 63. Are Daoist and CCT sacred spaces marked with
      any distinctive signs and symbols?             131
 64. Do Shinto practitioners mark their sacred spaces
      with any distinctive signs and symbols?      132
 65. Do numbers, colors, or elements of nature have
      symbolic meaning in the Chinese traditions?  134
 66. Are statues and other visual imagery important in
      Daoist and CCT temples?                         135
 67. What is the symbolism of the trigrams and their var-
      ious permutations called hexagrams? Are there any
      other common Chinese religious symbols?      137



 68. What kinds of ritual objects are important in Chi-
      nese and Japanese traditions?                  139
 69. How important is music in the Chinese and Japanese
      traditions?                                    141
 70. Is dance also a significant ingredient in these
      traditions?                                    143


SEVEN: INTERNAL DIVERSITY AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS  145

 71. Have there been any sub-communities or denomi-
      nations within Confucianism?                   147
 72. Have there been any important sub-communities or
      denominations within Daoism?                   148
 73. Are there any sub-communities or denominations
      within Shinto? Have "orthodoxy" and "heresy"
      been significant Shinto concepts?              150
 74. Is the phenomenon of conversion into the tradi-
      tions of China and Japan important?            152
 75. Have the Chinese and Japanese religious traditions
      typically sent out missionaries to convert others?  153
 76. Do people ever decide they want to depart from
      Daoism/CCT or Shinto?                          155
 77. How would you sum up Confucianism's historical
      relationships to other traditions?             156
 78. How would you describe Daoism's relationships to
      other traditions?                              157
 79. What issues have characterized Shinto's relation-
      ships to other traditions?                     158


EIGHT: WOMEN, FAMILY, AND SOCIETY                    161

 80. What gender-related issues have been important in
      these traditions? Have women exercised religious
      leadership and authority?                      163
 81. Who are some important female deities?       166



 82. Has religiously sponsored education played an
      important role?                                168
 83. What other religious institutions have supported
      community life in Chinese and Japanese traditions?  170
 84. What are the most important gathering places or
      communal religious venues?                     172
 85. Are there standard forms of group liturgical
      worship?                                       174
 86. What rites do Shinto practitioners perform in their
      shrines?                                       178
 87. What does the Shinto term "matsuri" mean and
      how does it explain the importance of community?  179
 88. How about worship at home and through the day, in
      smaller groupings, when people are not in temples
      and shrines?                                   180
 89. Could you give examples of some important "rites
      of passage"?                                   181
 90. Are there distinctive rituals or beliefs around mar-
      riage and family life?                         183
 91. What are the Confucian and Literati views of ances-
      tor veneration? What about Daoism/CCT and
      Shinto?                                        184
 92. Has the practice of religious pilgrimage been an
      important ingredient in the fostering of religious
      community in China and Japan?                  186


NINE: CHINESE AND JAPANESE TRADITIONS HERE AND NOW  189

 93. How have the major Chinese and Japanese traditions
     spread significantly beyond their lands of origin?  191
 94. Where do adherents of the great Chinese and Japan-
     ese traditions live today? Are any estimates of num-
     bers available?                                192
 95. Are there any historic monuments linking China's
     present to its imperial religion of old (CIT)?  194



 96. If I visited a Chinese temple today, what would I
     see?                                            197
 97. If I visited a Shinto shrine today, what would I see? 200
 98. Do millennialism or messianism have a place in the
     Chinese and Japanese traditions? Does the sect called
     Falun Gong have any such associations?       201
 99. Are there any holy places of contemporary signifi-
     cance?                                          204
 100. What do the current practices of taijiquan, divina-
     tion, fengshui, and accupuncture/accupressure have
     to do with Chinese religious traditions?     206
 101. Has the Japanese Emperor remained religiously
     important even with the Japanese loss of World
     War II? And were the kamikaze pilots associated
     with Shinto?                                    209





Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Confucianism Miscellanea, Taoism Miscellanea, Shinto Miscellanea