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ONE: BEGINNINGS AND EARLY SOURCES 5 1. Who was Confucius and what do traditional accounts tell us about his life? 7 2. What are the origins of "Confucianism"? Who were the Literati? 8 3. How is the Chinese Imperial Tradition (CIT) related to "Confucianism"? 9 4. What were the earliest Confucian sacred texts? Has Confucian tradition included any other sacred texts in its canon? 11 5. Who was Laozi, and what was his connection with the origins of religious Daoism and its scriptures? 13 6. What is religious Daoism and how does it differ from "Chinese Community Traditions" (CCT)? 14 7. Were there other important Daoist scriptures? And did an official canon of Daoist sacred texts ever develop? 16 8. What is Shinto and what are its origins? 18 9. What are the earliest important Shinto sacred texts? 18 10. Were Shinto's sacred texts ever gathered into a for- mal scriptural canon? 19 11. Are there important "mythic" elements in these traditions? 20 12. Who are some of the principal Shinto deities, apart from those mentioned in the primal myth? 23 TWO: DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD 25 13. If Confucius and Laozi were not considered divine early on, how did they come to assume so lofty a stature? 27 14. What chief deities and other important sacred per- sonages eventually came to form the Daoist pantheon? 28 15. How have Daoist/CCT history and myth come together in the stories of the Jade Emperor, Guandi, and the Yellow Emperor? 30 16. What was the relationship between religious ritual and the power of the Chinese imperial court? 32 17. Have the Chinese traditions ever been intimately dentified with specific political regimes, the way Shinto became Japan's "national" creed? 34 18. Is there a distinctively Confucian interpretation of history? 36 19. Have there been any important Confucian reform movements? What are Neo-Confucianism and Neo-Daoism? 37 20. What is the historical importance of the develop- ments known as Dual Shinto and the School of National Learning? 39 21. How would you sum up the history of Confucianism? 41 22. How would you summarize the history of religious Daoism? 42 23. How would you sum up the history of Shinto? 43 THREE: DOCTRINES AND PRACTICES 45 24. Is creed an important concept in the major Chinese and Japanese traditions? 47 25. Are "doctrine" and "dogma" important concepts in Chinese and Japanese religion? 48 26. Is the concept of revelation useful in understanding the traditions of China and Japan? 50 27. Does belief in an afterlife play an important role in Chinese and Japanese religious thought? 52 28. Are salvation or redemption important concepts? 54 29. What kind of ritual calendar do these traditions observe? 55 30. How important is the concept of "ritual" in Confu- cianism and the CIT? Could you describe an exam- ple of an annual CIT ritual occasion? 58 31. What regular or annual observances have been part of Confucian/CIT tradition? 59 32. What are the major types of Daoist religious observance? 61 33. What are some of the major festivities Shinto practi- tioners celebrate? 64 34. What place does purification occupy in Shinto rit- ual? And what are the main features of major shrine rituals? 66 FOUR: AUTHORITY, LAW, AND ETHICS 71 35. Are there critical concepts about the nature of the human person? 73 36. How do Confucians, Daoists, and adherents of Shinto think about the goal of human life? 74 37. Is there a distinctive religious or theological "ethic" in these traditions? 75 38. What is the principal Confucian virtue? What is meant by "rectification of names"? 78 39. What is the basic Confucian concept of appropriate moral leadership? And what is the Mandate of Heaven? 79 40. Is there a central teaching authority in any of the major Chinese and Japanese traditions? 81 41. Have the Chinese and Japanese evolved discrete sys- tems of religious law? 82 42. Are there important hierarchical structures in these religious traditions? 84 43. How does the hierarchy among Shinto shrines work? 87 44. What are some of the main varieties of officials or ritual specialists? 88 45. How are leaders chosen and vested with authority? 90 FIVE: SPIRITUALITY AND POPULAR PIETY 93 46. What do these traditions say about ultimate spiri- tual reality? 95 47. Are miracles an important element in the spirituality of these traditions? 98 48. Are relics significant in these traditions? 99 49. Is there such a thing as a saint in Chinese and Japan- ese religious traditions? 100 50. Do these traditions celebrate the birthdays of any religious figures or honor them on "feast days"? 104 51. Have there been any Confucian, Daoist, or Shinto mystics? 106 52. Has martyrdom ever been important in the history of the Chinese and Japanese traditions? 107 53. Do Confucians, Daoists, and adherents of Shinto believe in angels or devils? 108 54. Given the ubiquitous presence of spirits, is exorcism an important practice in Chinese or Japanese tradi- tions? 111 55. What role do dreams and visions, or other spirit- manifestations, play? 113 56. Is the practice of divination prominent in Chinese and Japanese spiritualities? 114 57. How do Chinese and Japanese faith traditions deal ritually with death and mourning? 116 SIX: RELIGION AND ARTISTIC EXPRESSION 121 58. Are there any signs or symbols that might identify an individual as an adherent of a particular Chinese or Japanese tradition? 123 59. What signs or symbols distinguish ritual specialists in the Chinese and Japanese traditions? 124 60. Is there such a thing as Confucian or Shinto art or aesthetics? 127 61. Do Confucians mark their sacred spaces with any distinctive signs and symbols? 128 62. Are there symbolic dimensions in CIT sacred spaces? 129 63. Are Daoist and CCT sacred spaces marked with any distinctive signs and symbols? 131 64. Do Shinto practitioners mark their sacred spaces with any distinctive signs and symbols? 132 65. Do numbers, colors, or elements of nature have symbolic meaning in the Chinese traditions? 134 66. Are statues and other visual imagery important in Daoist and CCT temples? 135 67. What is the symbolism of the trigrams and their var- ious permutations called hexagrams? Are there any other common Chinese religious symbols? 137 68. What kinds of ritual objects are important in Chi- nese and Japanese traditions? 139 69. How important is music in the Chinese and Japanese traditions? 141 70. Is dance also a significant ingredient in these traditions? 143 SEVEN: INTERNAL DIVERSITY AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS 145 71. Have there been any sub-communities or denomi- nations within Confucianism? 147 72. Have there been any important sub-communities or denominations within Daoism? 148 73. Are there any sub-communities or denominations within Shinto? Have "orthodoxy" and "heresy" been significant Shinto concepts? 150 74. Is the phenomenon of conversion into the tradi- tions of China and Japan important? 152 75. Have the Chinese and Japanese religious traditions typically sent out missionaries to convert others? 153 76. Do people ever decide they want to depart from Daoism/CCT or Shinto? 155 77. How would you sum up Confucianism's historical relationships to other traditions? 156 78. How would you describe Daoism's relationships to other traditions? 157 79. What issues have characterized Shinto's relation- ships to other traditions? 158 EIGHT: WOMEN, FAMILY, AND SOCIETY 161 80. What gender-related issues have been important in these traditions? Have women exercised religious leadership and authority? 163 81. Who are some important female deities? 166 82. Has religiously sponsored education played an important role? 168 83. What other religious institutions have supported community life in Chinese and Japanese traditions? 170 84. What are the most important gathering places or communal religious venues? 172 85. Are there standard forms of group liturgical worship? 174 86. What rites do Shinto practitioners perform in their shrines? 178 87. What does the Shinto term "matsuri" mean and how does it explain the importance of community? 179 88. How about worship at home and through the day, in smaller groupings, when people are not in temples and shrines? 180 89. Could you give examples of some important "rites of passage"? 181 90. Are there distinctive rituals or beliefs around mar- riage and family life? 183 91. What are the Confucian and Literati views of ances- tor veneration? What about Daoism/CCT and Shinto? 184 92. Has the practice of religious pilgrimage been an important ingredient in the fostering of religious community in China and Japan? 186 NINE: CHINESE AND JAPANESE TRADITIONS HERE AND NOW 189 93. How have the major Chinese and Japanese traditions spread significantly beyond their lands of origin? 191 94. Where do adherents of the great Chinese and Japan- ese traditions live today? Are any estimates of num- bers available? 192 95. Are there any historic monuments linking China's present to its imperial religion of old (CIT)? 194 96. If I visited a Chinese temple today, what would I see? 197 97. If I visited a Shinto shrine today, what would I see? 200 98. Do millennialism or messianism have a place in the Chinese and Japanese traditions? Does the sect called Falun Gong have any such associations? 201 99. Are there any holy places of contemporary signifi- cance? 204 100. What do the current practices of taijiquan, divina- tion, fengshui, and accupuncture/accupressure have to do with Chinese religious traditions? 206 101. Has the Japanese Emperor remained religiously important even with the Japanese loss of World War II? And were the kamikaze pilots associated with Shinto? 209Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Confucianism Miscellanea, Taoism Miscellanea, Shinto Miscellanea