Table of contents for Archaeological conservation using polymers : practical applications for organic artifact stabilization / C. Wayne Smith ; foreword by J. M. Klosowski.

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   Foreword by J. M. Klosowski, ix
   Acknowledgments, xiiI
   Introduction, 3

1  Laboratory Setup, 7
   Major Instrumentation, 7
   Small Necessities in the Laboratory, 8
   Chemicals, 9
2  Baseline Mechanisms, 13
   Dowel Experiment, 13
   Mass Spectrographic Analysis of Out-Gases Created from the
   Dehydration of Archaeological Wood Samples, 17
3  Archaeological Wood, 21
   The Challenge of Conserving Waterlogged Wood, 21
   Degradation and Shrinkage, 22
   Waterlogged Wood from Saltwater Environments, 22
   Case Study: Waterlogged Wooden Buttons with and without
   Associated Thread, 26
   Dry-Site Artifacts-Dry and Desiccated Wood, 28
   Reprocessing and Stabilization of PEG-Treated Wood, 30
   Tongue Depressor Experiment, 31
   Case Study: Re-treatment of Two PEG-Treated Sabots, 40
   Re-treatment of PEG-Treated Waterlogged Wood, 43
   Case Study: Treatment of Waterlogged Wood Using Hydrolyzable,
      Multifunctional Alkoxysilane Polymers, 45
4  Leather Preservation, 60
   Archaeological Leather, 60
   Cleaning, 62
   Chemical Cleaning, 62
   Treatment of Leather, 62
   PEG/Air-Drying Treatments, 63
   Freeze-Drying PEG-Treated Artifacts, 64
   PEG and Other Polymers, 65
   Passivation Polymer Processes, 66
   Case Study: A Successful Treatment Strategy for a Waterlogged Shoe, 66
   Passivation Polymer Treatment for Dessicated Leather, 69
   An Effective Treatment for Dry Leather, 70
   Suggestions for Treating Leather between Sheets of Glass, 72
   Storage and Display of Leather Artifacts, 72

5 Composite Artifacts, 74
   Case Study: Preservation of a Composite Artifact Containing Basketry
     and Iron Shot, 74
6 Cordage and Textiles, 81
   New Techniques for the Preservation of Waterlogged Rope, 81
   Silicone Treatment Strategies, 82
   Frankfurter Method of Rope Preservation, 82
   Treating Waterlogged Rope in a Nonpolar Suspension Medium, 82
   Incorporating the Use of Nonpolar Suspension Mediums and Elements
     of the Frankfurter Method into "Traditional" Silicone Treatment Strategies, 83
   Case Study: La Belle Rope, 83
   Case Study: Preservation of Waterlogged Canvas from Port Royal, go
7 Glass Conservation, 93
   Devitrification, 96
   Removal of Sulfide Stains from Lead Crystal, 96
   Consolidating Waterlogged Glass Using Passivation Polymers, 96
   An Effective Silicone Oil Treatment Strategy, 96
   Reconstruction, 98
   Case Study: Preservation of Seventeenth-Century Glass Using Polymers, oo
   Case Study: Preserving Waterlogged Glass and Cork, 108
8 Ivory and Bone, 112
   Basic Structural Differences, 112
   Equipment Setup for Very Fragile Bone and Ivory, 113
   Case Study: Consolidating Friable Bone, 114
   Case Study: Ivory from Tantura-B Excavations in Israel, 115
   Case Study: Waterlogged Tusks from Western Australia, 116
9 Expanding the Conservation Tool Kit, 119
   Computerized Tomography and the Stereolithographic Process, 120
   Case Study: Scanning an Encrusted Artifact-CT Scanning Used as a
   Diagnostic Tool, 121
   New Tools-New Directions in Research, 121

   Notes, 125
   Index, 127


Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Antiquities Collection and preservation, Archaeology Methodology, Archaeological chemistry, Polymers