Table of contents for The age of reform and industrialization, 1896-1920 / Roman Espejo, book editor.

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Chapter 1: 1896-1904: America
Ascends to Power

1. The Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court Case
  By John Marshall Harlan                              26
    In 1896, in the Plessy v. Ferguson case, the U.S.
    Supreme Court ruled that reserving "separate-but-
    equal" facilities for blacks and whites did not vio-
    late the Fourteenth Amendment. U.S. Supreme
    Court Justice John Marshall Harlan was the lone
    dissenter of the decision and argued that any de-
    gree of racial segregation is oppressive.

2. The Triumph of America in the Spanish-
  American War
  By Henry Watterson                                   31
    The mysterious explosion of the USS Maine off the
    coast of Havana, Cuba, and opposition to Spanish
    colonial rule of Cuba prompted the United States
    to declare war against Spain in 1898. America's tri-
    umph in the Spanish-American War announced
    the arrival of a new global power.

3. The United States Annexes the Philippines
  By William Jennings Bryan                            37
    After its victory in the Spanish-American War of
    1898, the United States faced the question of
    whether or not to act as an imperial power and an-
    nex Spain's former colonies. Politician William Jen-
    nings Bryan, a leading anti-imperialist, railed
    against the forced U.S. annexation of the Philip-
    pines on the basis that it profoundly conflicted
    with America's virtues of democracy and freedom.


4. Urban Growth in the United States
  By Adna Ferrin Weber                                  42
    Turn-of-the-century industrial advances trans-
    formed agriculture in the United States and freed
    the majority of the population from the necessity
    of farming. Able to pursue other ways of living,
    Americans flocked to the cities, causing the urban
    population of the United States to swell.

5. Laissez-Faire and the Gospel of Wealth
  By Foster Rhea Dulles                                 46
    The "hands-off" philosophy of laissez-faire pre-
    vailed in American economics during the early
    twentieth century, resulting in the rise of big busi-
    ness monopolies and great imbalances of eco-
    nomic wealth and power.

6. Life in Small-Town and Rural America
  By John W. Dodds                                      51
    Although the United States was becoming increas-
    ingly urbanized by the 1900s, most Americans still
    lived in small towns or on farms, where the sim-
    plicity of their daily routines, traditions, and ways
    of life remained unchanged.

7. Immigration at the Turn of the Century
  By Edward Lowry                                       57
    Immigration to the United States reached historic
    peaks in the first decade of the twentieth century.
    The majority of these immigrants hailed from
    southern and eastern Europe, Asia, Mexico, and
    Scandinavia and arrived at Ellis Island.

8. The Assassination of President William
  By Aaron T. Haverin                                   62
    The Pan-American Exposition of 1901, "Grandest
    of all the World's Fairs," tragically set the stage for
    the assassination of President William McKinley.
    He was shot at point-blank range by Leon Czol-
    golz, a self-professed disciple of American anar-
    chist Emma Goldman.

9. The Wright Brothers' First Flight
  By Hendrik de Leeuw                                  68
    On December 17,1903, Orville and Wilbur
    Wright's biplane achieved the miracle of heavier-
    than-air flight. Although this cold, winter day
    would go down in history, the public and press
    barely took notice of the Wrights' achievement.

10. Opening Night at Coney Island
   By the New York Times                               72
     At the turn of the century, the amusement parks
     at Coney Island were a huge success, attracting
     hundreds of thousands of patrons with their daz-
     zling sights, thrilling rides, and exotic attractions.
     The success of these parks sprung from the pock-
     ets of working Americans eager to spend their
     newfound leisure time escaping the monotonous

Chapter 2: 1905-1912: Resistance and

1. The Rise of Muckraking Journalism
  By Stephen Goode                                     78
    Muckraking journalists in the early 1900s gave
    Americans a closer look at the corrupted activities
    of governments and private industries. Their
    brand of investigative reporting, during its finest
    hours, saved lives and shaped federal reform.

2. The Saloon Problem
  By John Marshall Barker                              84
    Temperance advocates attributed America's social
    problems to the consumption of alcohol. John Mar-
    shall Barker, a major figure of the temperance
    movement, contended that the saloon encouraged
    alcohol abuse, posing a great menace to society.

3. The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906
  By DeWitt C. Baldwin                                 89
    On April 18, 1906, a deadly earthquake rocked the
    city of San Francisco, resulting in devastating
    losses of property and life. More than eighty years
    later, former San Francisco resident DeWitt C.


    Baldwin recalled the natural disaster with eerie

4. Theodore Roosevelt and the Hepburn Act
  By Nathan Miller                                      95
    President Theodore Roosevelt worked to limit the
    powers of big business. With the Hepburn Act, he
    gave the government the authority to regulate the
    railroad monopolies.

5. The Great American Vaudeville Industry
  By the New York Times                                100
    Vaudeville shows led the American entertainment
    industry in the early 1900s. The chance to join a
    successful vaudeville show or act drew aspiring
    performers from all walks of life.

6. The Founding of the National Association for
  the Advancement of Colored People
  By Charles Flint Kellogg                             107
    Although slavery had been abolished in the
    United States in the 1860s, the social and economic
    situation of black Americans changed little as they
    entered the twentieth century. In 1909, a group of
    multiracial activists answered the call of their abo-
    litionist predecessors and formed the nation's old-
    est civil rights organization.

7. Life in a Sweatshop
  By Rose Cohen                                        111
    Sweatshops exploited and endangered the lives of
    the nation's poor in the early 1900s. As a young
    woman desperate for employment, Rose Cohen re-
    luctantly took up work in a grueling, abusive gar-
    ment factory.

8. The Effort to Save Yosemite
  By John Muir                                         116
    Developers' plans to dam Yosemite's Hetch
    Hetchy Valley stirred a national debate in the early
    twentieth century. Preservationist John Muir ar-
    gued passionately against the dam, believing that
    it would destroy Yosemite's greatest treasure.

Chapter 3: 1913-1917: America
Watches the World Go to War

1. The Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913
  By Sheridan Harvey                                 123
    By 1913, after a half century of struggle, only six
    states had granted women the right to vote. To
    breathe new life into the suffrage movement, thou-
    sands of activitists boldly marched for women's
    suffrage in Washington, D.C., on March 3 of that

2. Henry Ford Introduces Mass Production
  By Allan Nevins and Frank Ernest Hill              129
    When automobile manufacturer Henry Ford ap-
    plied his seven principles of mass production to
    his factories in late 1913, he made automobiles af-
    fordable and ushered in a new age of industry and

3. The Balkan Crisis: Assassination at Sarajevo
  By Edward Robb Ellis                               134
    Centuries of conflict in the Balkans led to the as-
    sassination of the archduke of Austria-Este and his
    wife on June 28, 1914. Although the tragedy would
    plunge Europe and eventually the United States
    into World War I, many Americans regarded the
    event as a routine incident of Balkan hostility.

4. The Panama Canal Opens a Path Between the
  By David McCullough                                143
    The Panama Canal, which connects the Pacific and
    Atlantic Oceans, is a monumental testament to hu-
    man ingenuity, perseverance, and sacrifice. How-
    ever, the triumph of the canal's completion in 1914
    was eclipsed by Germany's declaration of war.

5. Tension Grows in "Neutral" America
  By Mark Sullivan                                   151
    Conscious of America's diverse cultural back-
    ground, President Woodrow Wilson declared that
    the United States must remain neutral in World
    War I. Nonetheless, the nation's official stance of

    neutrality could not mask the growing friction be-
    tween pro-Ally and pro-German Americans.

6. Americans React to the Sinking of the
  By Thomas A. Bailey and Paul B. Ryan               155
    The sinking of the British luxury liner Lusitania by
    a German submarine on May 7, 1915, in which 128
    American lives were lost, was widely condemned
    in the United States. The desire for retribution
    against Germany, however, was not unanimous.

7. The Birth of a Nation: A Landmark in Film
  By Ward Greene                                     161
    Released in February 1915, D.W. Griffith's The
    Birth of a Nation became America's most important
    cinematic event to date. Critic Ward Greene com-
    mented on the controversy and passion the film ig-

8. Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control
  By Ellen Chesler                                   166
    Driven by the horrors of self-induced abortions,
    Margaret Sanger dedicated herself to making birth
    control accessible to women. When Sanger
    founded America's first birth control clinic in Oc-
    tober 1916, she gave momentum to the birth con-
    trol movement.

Chapter 4: 1918-1919: The War
Changes America

1. America Enters World War I
  By Woodrow Wilson                                  177
    President Woodrow Wilson was determined to
    maintain America's neutrality in the First World
    War. However, after Germany resumed unre-
    stricted submarine warfare and sank three Ameri-
    can ships, Wilson delivered a stirring war speech
    that persuaded Congress to enter into the war and
    fight for the Allied cause.

2. America Asserts Its Military Power
  By Arthur S. Link, William A. Link, and
  William B. Catton                                   186
    American troops helped to end the deadlock on
    the Western front in favor of the Allies. In addition,
    the U.S. Navy's campaign against German subma-
    rine warfare greatly reduced the shipping losses of
    the Allies.

3. Eugene Debs's Antiwar Speech
  By Eugene Debs                                      192
    Despite the risk of imprisonment, socialist leader
    Eugene Debs spoke boldly against America's in-
    volvement in World War I. In his Canton, Ohio, an-
    tiwar speech, Debs asserted his belief that fighting
    in the war did not serve the interests of the com-
    mon people.

4. The Influenza Epidemic Hits America
  By A.A. Hoehling                                    203
    The influenza epidemic had swept the globe and
    killed millions of people before it broke out in the
    United States in the spring of 1918. By the fall of
    that year, thousands of Americans were becoming
    infected with and dying from the deadly virus on
    a weekly basis.

5. The Treaty of Versailles and the League of
  By Thomas C. Reeves                                 210
    President Woodrow Wilson believed that the dev-
    astation left by World War I provided the opportu-
    nity to achieve global peace. Abroad and at home,
    Wilson tenaciously pursued the creation of the
    League of Nations, an organization aimed at pre-
    venting future wars.

6. The Making of a Red
  By Robert Benchley                                  218
    Wartime suspicions bloomed into the Red Scare, a
    mass paranoia of foreigners and political dis-
    senters in the United States. Believing it was a
    counterproductive social movement, noted hu-
    morist and drama critic of the day Robert Benchley
    wrote an essay satirizing the Red Scare.


7. An American Town Greets Prohibition
  By the Historical Society of Quincy and
  Adams County, Illinois                               223
    Although the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified
    on January 16, 1920, the passing of the Volstead
    Act in 1918 hastened the prohibition of alcohol
    more than six months earlier. Like many towns
    across the United States, the people of Quincy,
    Illinois, crowded the saloons and stocked up on
    liquor before greeting Prohibition.

8. The 1919 World Series: Baseball's Most
  Famous Scandal
  By the Chicago Historical Society                   228
    Low morale, measly pay, and jealousies tempted
    eight members of the Chicago White Sox to strike
    a deal with a gambler to throw the 1919 World Se-
    ries to the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for
    $100,000. The resulting scandal threatened base-
    ball's standing as America's favorite pastime.


 Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:United
States History 1865-1921 Juvenile literature, United States History
1865-1921 Sources Juvenile literature, United States History 1865-1921,
United States History 1865-1921 Sources