Table of contents for The new nature of history : knowledge, evidence, language / Arthur Marwick.


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   Preface                                                   x
1 Introduction: The Battle of Basic Assumptions              1
   1 Stating my Position                                     1
   2 Eight Battlegrounds                                     4
     Metaphysical, Nomothetic and Ontological Approaches      4
     Radical Politics - or just Nihilism?                     6
     The Nature of Societies: Past, Present and Future        9
     The Cultural Construction of Knowledge - and
     Everything Else                                         10
     Language: History a Branch of Literature                  11
     Textuality - the Alleged Existence Thereof                13
     Disagreements Among Historians                            14
     What Precisely is the Danger?                             18
2 History: Essential Knowledge about the Past                  22
   1 The Past, History, and Sources                            22
     The Past                                                  22
     Primary and Secondary Sources                             26
     Defining 'History' and 'Historiography'                   28
   2 The Necessity for History                                 31
     History: A Social Necessity                               31
     Other Justifications for History                          35
   3 The auteur Theory of History and the Question of
     Subjectivity                                              38
     The Historian as auteur                                   38
     Relativism: R. G. Collingwood                             40
     The Subjectivity Question                                 44
3 How the Discipline of History Evolved: From Thucydides
   to Langlois and Seignobos                                   51
   1 From Ancient Athens to the Enlightenment                 51
     The Exemplar History of the Ancients                      51



     The Medieval Chronicles                                  54
     Renaissance Histories and Ancillary Techniques           55
     The Enlightenment                                        58
   2 Ranke: His Disciples and his Critics                     61
     Vico and Herder                                          61
     Ranke and Niebuhr                                        62
     Mommsen and Burckhardt                                   67
     Thierry, Michelet and de Tocqueville                     69
   3 Positivism and Marxism                                   70
     Comte                                                    70
     Marx                                                     70
     Fustel de Coulanges                                      73
   4 Anglo-Saxon Attitudes                                    74
     Macaulay and the Whig Historians                         74
     Bishop Stubbs                                            75
     From Freeman to Tout and Acton                           76
     The United States                                        78
   5 The End of the Century                                   79
     Five Major Issues                                        79
     Scientific History? Langlois and Seignobos               80
     History as Literature                                    84

4 How the Discipline of History Evolved: Through the
   Twentieth into the Twenty-First Century                    88
   1 'New' History                                            88
     The Three 'New Histories'                                88
     American 'New History'                                   88
     Founders of the Annales School; Febvre and Bloch       90
     Pirenne, Labrousse, Lefebvre                             94
     Bloch's The Historian's Craft                            96
   2 The Rise of the Sub-Histories                            97
     Meinecke, Chabod and Ritter                              97
     Early Labour and Economic Histories in Britain           98
     McIlwain, Namier and Elton                              101
   3 Latter-day Marxism and Past and Present                 107
     British Marxist Historiographers: Tosh and Carr       107
     The Frankfurt School and Structuralism:
       The Cross-Fertilisation of Marxism                    108
     'Western Marxism' and the Study of the French Revolution  110
     The British Marxists                                    114
     The American Marxists                                   116
     Jurgen Kocka                                            118
   4 Annales: The Second and Third Generations               119
     Braudel                                                 119



     Annales: The Third Generation                           124
   5 New Economic History, New Social History, History of
     Science, New Cultural History                           126
     New Economic History                                    126
     Historical Demography, Urban History, History of the
     Family, of Childhood and of Death                     129
     Feminist History: History of Women                      132
     The History of Science, Medicine and Technology       133
     New Social History                                      135
     The 'Historikerstreit'                                  136
     New Cultural History                                    136
     Natalie Zemon Davis                                     138
     The Cambridge Connection                                142
     Microhistory: Menocchio the Miller                      142
     Chartier                                                143
   6 The Start of a New Century: Nothing Ruled Out           145

5 The Historian at Work: Forget 'Facts', Foreground Sources  152
   1 'Facts'                                                 152
   2 Primary and Secondary Sources                           155
     Vive la diffrence!                                      155
     The Hierarchy of Primary Sources; Bibliographies      157
     Relationship Between Primary and Secondary Sources:
     Footnotes                                             159
     Integrating Primary and Secondary Sources: Strategy   163
   3 The Immense Variety of Primary Sources                  164
     Strengths and Weaknesses of Different Types of Primary
       Sources                                               164
     A Taxonomy of Primary Sources                           166
   4 Witting and Unwitting Testimony                         172
   5 A Catechism for the Analysis, Evaluation and Use of
       Primary Sources                                       179
     The Catechism                                           180
     Practising on One Example                               182
   6 The Arts as Sources                                     185
     Use and Abuse of the Arts                               185
     Art as a Source                                         189

6 The Historian at Work: The Communication of Historical
  Knowledge                                                 195
   1 The Fundamentals of Good Writing                       195
     Different Levels of Communication and the Basic Skill of
       Writing                                               195
     Writing a Paragraph                                     196



     Writing a Thesis or Book                                199
   2 Explanation, Periodisation, and Structure               201
     Analysis                                                201
     Causes and Outcomes: The Elton Model                    202
     Hierarchy of Explanatory Factors                        204
     Structure                                               206
     Two Examples of Structures                              208
   3 Comparative History                                     213
   4 Concepts and Cliches                                    214
     Clich6s                                                 214
     Concepts                                                215
     'Gender', 'Patriarchy', 'Moral Panics', and so on     216
     'Culture' and 'Cultural'                                218
     'Class' and 'State'                                     219
     Revisionism                                             220
   5 Quotations and Scholarly Apparatus                      221
     Use of Quotation                                        221
     Identifying Quotations: Footnotes                       224
     Bibliographies                                          226
   6 Types of Historical Communication: From Scholarly
       Monograph to Museums, Films and Television            227
     Levels of Historical Communication: 'Public History'  227
     The PhD Thesis or Dissertation                          228
     Monographs and Learned Articles                         228
     The Scholarly Synthesis                                 230
     Textbooks                                               230
     Pop History                                             231
     Some Examples of Public History                         232
     Television History                                      233
     Feature Films                                           238

7 Theory, the Sciences, the Humanities                       241
   1 History, Theory, the Sciences                           241
     Sokal and Bricmont                                      241
     The Nature of Scientific Theory                         244
     History and the Sciences                                247
     History as an Autonomous Discipline                     249
     Postmoderist Metaphysics                                250
     Foucault                                                252
     Compromising with Postmodernism                         253
   2 History, Sociobiology, Social Sciences and Humanities  260
     Evolutionary Psychology                                 260
     Economics, Political Science, Social Psychology       261
     History's Place in the University                       262



     History is NOT Literature                               262

8 Conclusion: Crisis, What Crisis?                           266

   Appendix A: An Example of Learning Outcomes for a
   History Degree                                           274
   1 Knowledge and Understanding                             274
   2 Key Skills                                              275
   3 Cognitive Skills                                        275
   4 Professional and Practical Skills                       275

   Appendix B: Examples of Aims and Objectives              277
   1 Aims of the Open University Course Total War and Social
       Change: Europe 1914-1955                              277
   2 Objectives for Unit 13, 'Challenges to Central Government,
       1660s to 1714', from the Open University Course Princes
       and Peoples: The British Isles and France c. 1630-1714  278

   Appendix C: Writing History                              279
   1 Planning a History Essay                                279
   2 Guidance on Writing an Essay                            282
   3 A Brief Guide to Referencing for Historians (by Arnika
      Mombauer)                                             283

   Appendix D: Glossary                                     287

Further Reading                                              297
Index                                                        309